A shopkeeper economy
This paper investigates the properties of an economy populated by shopkeepers who monopolistically provide differentiated services at zero marginal cost but positive fixed costs. In this setting, equilibrium output and wealth depend on consumer demand rather than available supply. The “shopkeeper economy” is compared to a standard production-based economy in which wealth is a function only of labor supply and technology. I demonstrate that the existence of producers who face only fixed costs provides a counterexample to the notion that “supply creates its own demand.”
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- Daniel P. Murphy, 2013.
"Why are goods and services more expensive in rich countries? demand complementarities and cross-country price differences,"
Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper
156, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Murphy, Daniel, 2013. "Why are Goods and Services more Expensive in Rich Countries? Demand Complementarities and Cross-Country Price Differences," Working Papers 636, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Costas Arkolakis, 2010.
"Market Penetration Costs and the New Consumers Margin in International Trade,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(6), pages 1151-1199.
- Costas Arkolakis, 2008. "Market Penetration Costs and the New Consumers Margin in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 14214, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher J. Nekarda & Valerie A. Ramey, 2013. "The Cyclical Behavior of the Price-Cost Markup," NBER Working Papers 19099, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Craig Burnside & Martin Eichenbaum & Sergio Rebelo, 1990.
"Labor Hoarding and the Business Cycle,"
NBER Working Papers
3556, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538-538.
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