Incorporating insurance rate estimates and differential mortality into net marginal Social Security tax rate calculations
This paper extends the literature on net marginal tax rates created by the Social Security program by including variations in both the probability of being eligible to receive benefits and income-related life expectancy. The previous literature has found that women incur a lower net marginal tax rate because they have longer life expectancies. The results presented in this paper indicate that including variations in eligibility for benefits partially reverses this result by increasing net marginal Social Security tax rates for older women. In addition, the existing literature has shown that low-income households pay lower net marginal tax rates because the benefit formula is progressive. Including variations in life expectancy reduces, but does not eliminate, this result. This implies that differential mortality increases the net marginal Social Security tax rates incurred by low-income households. These results are important from a policy standpoint given the gender differences in poverty among the population over age sixty-five and the current debate on the future of the Social Security system.
|Date of creation:||2002|
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- Garrett, Daniel M, 1995. "The Effects of Differential Mortality Rates on the Progressivity of Social Security," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(3), pages 457-475, July.
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- Phillip B. Levine & Olivia S. Mitchell & John W. Phillips, "undated".
"Worklife Determinants of Retirement Income Differentials Between Men and Women,"
Pension Research Council Working Papers
99-19, Wharton School Pension Research Council, University of Pennsylvania.
- Phillip J. Levine & Olivia S. Mitchell & John W. Phillips, 1999. "Worklife Determinants of Retirement Income Differentials Between Men and Women," NBER Working Papers 7243, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martin Feldstein & Andrew Samwick, 1992. "Social Security Rules and Marginal Tax Rates," NBER Working Papers 3962, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brittain, John A, 1972. "The Incidence of the Social Security Payroll Tax: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 739-742, September.
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