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Interpretação nacionalista versus interpretação da dependência

  • Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser

Nos anos 1950 dois grupos de intelectuais públicos, organizados em torno da CEPAL, em Santiago do Chile, e do ISEB, no Rio de Janeiro, pensaram a América Latina de forma pioneira de um ponto de vista nacionalista. A CEPAL criticou a lei das vantagens comparativas e suas implicações antiindustrializantes e imperialistas; o ISEB concentrou sua atenção na coalizão de classes por trás da estratégia nacional de desenvolvimento proposta. A existência de uma burguesia nacional era fundamental para esta interpretação. Entretanto, a Revolução Cubana e os golpes militares modernizantes que se seguiram abriram espaço para a crítica dessas ideias pela interpretação marxista da dependência que logo se dividiu em dois grupos. Os dois rejeitaram equivocadamente a possibilidade de uma burguesia nacional nos países latino-americanos, mas enquanto uma derivava dessa premissa equivocada a necessidade e possibilidade de uma revolução socialista, o outro, associado à escola de sociologia de São Paulo (USP) concluiu pela associação com os países em ricos. Ambos ignoraram o caráter ambíguo e contraditório da burguesia da região e enfraqueceram o nacionalismo econômico que caracteriza a formação dos estados-nação e seu desenvolvimento econômico

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Paper provided by Escola de Economia de São Paulo, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil) in its series Textos para discussão with number 266.

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Date of creation: 06 Aug 2010
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Handle: RePEc:fgv:eesptd:266
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  1. Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira, 2002. "Brazil's Quasi-Stagnation and the Growth cum Foreign Savings Strategy," International Journal of Political Economy, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 32(4), pages 76-102, January.
  2. Palma, Gabriel, 1978. "Dependency: A formal theory of underdevelopment or a methodology for the analysis of concrete situations of underdevelopment?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 6(7-8), pages 881-924.
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