IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fce/doctra/1836.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Nepotism vs specific skills: the effect of professional liberalization on returns to parental back ground of Italian lawyers

Author

Listed:
  • Michel Raitano
  • Francesco Vona

    (OFCE, Sciences Po, Paris, France)

Abstract

We study the mechanisms of intergenerational inequality among Italian lawyers over the period 1994- 2014 using a longitudinal dataset that combines administrative and survey data. We first estimate a 17.5% earnings premium for a law family background within the group of lawyers, so conditional on entering the profession. We then exploit the 2003-2006 liberalization process, which asymmetrically affected the two main transmission mechanisms: skill transfer and nepotism. We find that liberalization squeezed the law background return by at least 3/5, thus revealing a high incidence of nepotism. The bulk of the reduction occurred for the youngest lawyers and the top earners

Suggested Citation

  • Michel Raitano & Francesco Vona, 2018. "Nepotism vs specific skills: the effect of professional liberalization on returns to parental back ground of Italian lawyers," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2018-36, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  • Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:1836
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.ofce.sciences-po.fr/pdf/dtravail/WP2018-36.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Manacorda, Marco & Gagliarducci, Stefano, 2016. "Politics in the family: Nepotism and the hiring decisionsof Italian firms," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 66440, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    2. Maria Guadalupe, 2007. "Product Market Competition, Returns to Skill, and Wage Inequality," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25, pages 439-474.
    3. Ruben Durante & Giovanna Labartino & Roberto Perotti, 2011. "Academic Dynasties: Decentralization and Familism in the Italian Academia," NBER Working Papers 17572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:12:p:2676-2703 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. James Heckman & Flavio Cunha, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 31-47, May.
    6. Yeaple, Stephen Ross, 2005. "A simple model of firm heterogeneity, international trade, and wages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 1-20, January.
    7. Francis Kramarz & Oskar Nordström Skans, 2014. "When Strong Ties are Strong: Networks and Youth Labour Market Entry," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 81(3), pages 1164-1200.
    8. Mario Pagliero & Edward Timmons, 2013. "Occupational Regulation in the European Legal Market," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 10(2), pages 243-265, August.
    9. Miles Corak & Patrizio Piraino, 2011. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Employers," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(1), pages 37-68, January.
    10. Alex Bell & Raj Chetty & Xavier Jaravel & Neviana Petkova & John Van Reenen, 2017. "Who Becomes an Inventor in America? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation," CEP Discussion Papers dp1519, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    11. Miles Corak, 2013. "Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 79-102, Summer.
    12. Elhanan Helpman & Oleg Itskhoki & Stephen Redding, 2010. "Inequality and Unemployment in a Global Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(4), pages 1239-1283, July.
    13. repec:spr:scient:v:101:y:2014:i:1:d:10.1007_s11192-014-1273-z is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2013. "Analyzing the Extent and Influence of Occupational Licensing on the Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(S1), pages 173-202.
    15. Michele Raitano & Francesco Vona, 2017. "Competition, firm size and returns to skills: Evidence from currency shocks and market liberalisations," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(12), pages 2676-2703, December.
    16. Maia Güell & Michele Pellizzari & Giovanni Pica & José V. Rodríguez Mora, 2018. "Correlating Social Mobility and Economic Outcomes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 128(612), pages 353-403, July.
    17. Ghazala Azmat & Rosa Ferrer Zarzuela, 2012. "Gender gaps in performance: Evidence from young lawyers," Economics Working Papers 1300, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2015.
    18. Bingley, Paul & Corak, Miles & Westergård-Nielsen, Niels C., 2011. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Employers in Canada and Denmark," IZA Discussion Papers 5593, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman & Susanne M. Schennach, 2010. "Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(3), pages 883-931, May.
    20. Laband, David N & Lentz, Bernard F, 1992. "Self-Recruitment in the Legal Profession," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(2), pages 182-201, April.
    21. Raitano Michele & Vona Francesco, 2018. "From the Cradle to the Grave: The Influence of Family Background on the Career Path of Italian Men," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 80(6), pages 1062-1088, December.
    22. Mario Macis & Fabiano Schivardi, 2016. "Exports and Wages: Rent Sharing, Workforce Composition, or Returns to Skills?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(4), pages 945-978.
    23. Mark Granovetter, 2005. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 33-50, Winter.
    24. repec:eee:labeco:v:51:y:2018:i:c:p:108-120 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
    26. Bernard F. Lentz & David N. Laband, 1989. "Why So Many Children of Doctors Become Doctors: Nepotism vs. Human Capital Transfers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(3), pages 396-413.
    27. repec:ucp:jpolec:doi:10.1086/693686 is not listed on IDEAS
    28. Pagliero, Mario, 2018. "Occupational Licensing, Labor Mobility, and the Unfairness of Entry Standards," CEPR Discussion Papers 13076, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    29. Morris M. Kleiner, 2000. "Occupational Licensing," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 189-202, Fall.
    30. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    31. Ghazala Azmat & Rosa Ferrer, 2017. "Gender Gaps in Performance: Evidence from Young Lawyers," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3t1fcs7p369, Sciences Po.
    32. Mocetti, Sauro, 2016. "Dynasties in professions and the role of rents and regulation: Evidence from Italian pharmacies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 1-10.
    33. Jeremy R. Magruder, 2010. "Intergenerational Networks, Unemployment, and Persistent Inequality in South Africa," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 62-85, January.
    34. Mario Pagliero & Edward Timmons, 2012. "Occupational Regulation in the European Legal Market," Working papers 27, Former Department of Economics and Public Finance "G. Prato", University of Torino.
    35. Michele Pellizzari, 2010. "Do Friends and Relatives Really Help in Getting a Good Job?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(3), pages 494-510, April.
    36. Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1979. "An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1153-1189, December.
    37. Michele Raitano & Francesco Vona, 2015. "Measuring the link between intergenerational occupational mobility and earnings: evidence from eight European countries," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(1), pages 83-102, March.
    38. repec:ucp:jpolec:doi:10.1086/694633 is not listed on IDEAS
    39. Marcenaro Gutierrez, Oscar & Micklewright, John & Vignoles, Anna, 2014. "Social Mobility and the Importance of Networks: Evidence for Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 8380, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    40. Michele Raitano & Francesco Vona, 2015. "Measuring the link between intergenerational occupational mobility and earnings: Evidence from eight EU countries," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/4rs0hmrl0s8, Sciences Po.
    41. Sauro Mocetti & Giacomo Roma & Enrico Rubolino, 2018. "Knocking on parents’ doors: regulation and intergenerational mobility," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1182, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    intergenerational inequality; social mobility; nepotism; specific skills; regulation; top occupations;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:1836. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Francesco Saraceno). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ofcspfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.