The Impact of Imported and Domestic Technologies on Productivity: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms
Proponents of trade liberalization in developing countries often argue that one of is most important benefits is that is enables firms in developing countries to access the international knowledge base by importing technology in both disembodied form (i.e. as technological know-how) as well as embodied form (i.e. embodied in imported capital goods). Opponents of trade liberalization argue otherwise. In addition to doubting that there are significant gains to be had from utilizing foreign technologies in developing country contexts, they believe that imports of technology dampen local efforts at developing new technology with negative consequences for local capabilities and long-run growth prospects. This paper utilizes panel data on a sample of Indian manufacturing firms for the years 1977-87 to examine these views. Production function estimates reveal that imported technologies, especially those of disembodied nature and obtained through contractual arrangements with foreign firms, impact productivity positively and significantly. Firms own R&D efforts, on the other hand, are note very productive. Finally, while domestically produced capital goods impact productivity positively and significantly, their impact appears to stem from the technological know-how imported by domestic producers of capital goods. Although these findings support the optimism of liberalizers that foreign technologies represent an important opportunity for productivity enhancement for developing country firms, the estimates of this paper also lend support to the notion that a liberal import policy will dampen local efforts at developing new technologies. More specifically, the estimate several that firms do not need to undertake significant R&D efforts to utilize imported technologies effectively. Thus, taken together their results suggest that while firms in India's recently liberalized economic environment will be able to raise their productivity by importing greater amounts of foreign technologies, they will also have less incentives to carry out their own R&D. To the extent that local efforts at R&D are a "good" to be encouraged, the challenge for public policy will be to devise policy tools that are able to boost local R&D, but not through a trade policy which blocks an important and direct channel by which firms can raise productivity.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2000|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848|
Phone: (808) 944-7560
Fax: (808) 944-7399
Web page: http://eastwestcenter.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Ferrantino, Michael J, 1992. "Technology Expenditures, Factor Intensity, and Efficiency in Indian Manufacturing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 689-700, November.
- Hulten, Charles R, 1992. "Growth Accounting When Technical Change Is Embodied in Capital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 964-980, September.
- A. Bhargava & L. Franzini & W. Narendranathan, 1982.
"Serial Correlation and the Fixed Effects Model,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 533-549.
- Jacques Mairesse & Bronwyn H. Hall, 1996. "Estimating the Productivity of Research and Development: An Exploration of GMM Methods Using Data on French & United States Manufacturing Firms," NBER Working Papers 5501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baldwin, Richard & Seghezza, Elena, 1996.
"Testing for Trade-induced Investment-led Growth,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1331, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Berndt, Ernst R. & Morrison, Catherine J., 1995.
"High-tech capital formation and economic performance in U.S. manufacturing industries An exploratory analysis,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 9-43, January.
- Berndt, Ernst R. & Morrison, Catherine J., 1992. "High-tech capital formation and economic performance in U.S. manufacturing industries : an exploratory analysis," Working papers 3419-92., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Bahk, Byong-Hong & Gort, Michael, 1993. "Decomposing Learning by Doing in New Plants," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(4), pages 561-583, August.
- Fikkert, Brian & Hasan, Rana, 1998. "Returns to scale in a highly regulated economy: evidence from Indian firms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 51-79, June.
- Arora, Ashish, 1996. "Contracting for tacit knowledge: the provision of technical services in technology licensing contracts," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 233-256, August.
- De Long, J. Bradford & Summers, Lawrence H., 1993. "How strongly do developing economies benefit from equipment investment?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 395-415, December.
- Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984.
"Errors in Variables in Panel Data,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0037, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Katrak, Homi, 1997. "Developing countries' imports of technology, in-house technological capabilities and efforts: an analysis of the Indian experience," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 67-83, June.
- Tybout, James R., 1992. "Making noisy data sing : Estimating production technologies in developing countries," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 25-44.
- Lee, Jong-Wha, 1995.
"Capital goods imports and long-run growth,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 91-110, October.
- Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 369-405.
- Raut, Lakshmi K., 1995. "R & D spillover and productivity growth: Evidence from Indian private firms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-23, October.
- Katrak, Homi, 1989. "Imported technologies and R&D in a newly industrialising country : The experience of Indian enterprises," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 123-139, July.
- Charles R. Hulten, 1992. "Growth Accounting When Technical Change is Embodied in Capital," NBER Working Papers 3971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Westbrook, M Daniel & Tybout, James R, 1993. "Estimating Returns to Scale with Large, Imperfect Panels: An Application to Chilean Manufacturing Industries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(1), pages 85-112, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ewc:wpaper:wp06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Brenda Higashimoto)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.