Imputation Methods for Handling Item-Nonresponse in the Social Sciences: A Methodological Review
Missing data are often a problem in social science data. Imputation methods fill in the missing responses and lead, under certain conditions, to valid inference. This article reviews several imputation methods used in the social sciences and discusses advantages and disadvantages of these methods in practice. Simpler imputation methods as well as more advanced methods, such as fractional and multiple imputation, are considered. The paper introduces the reader new to the imputation literature to key ideas and methods. For those already familiar with imputation methods the paper highlights some new developments and clarifies some recent misconceptions in the use of imputation methods. The emphasis is on efficient hot deck imputation methods, implemented in either multiple or fractional imputation approaches. Software packages for using imputation methods in practice are reviewed highlighting newer developments. The paper discusses an example from the social sciences in detail, applying several imputation methods to a missing earnings variable. The objective is to illustrate how to choose between methods in a real data example. A simulation study evaluates various imputation methods, including predictive mean matching, fractional and multiple imputation. Certain forms of fractional and multiple hot deck methods are found to perform well with regards to bias and efficiency of a point estimator and robustness against model misspecifications. Standard parametric imputation methods are not found adequate for the application considered.[NCRM WP]
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Little, Roderick J A, 1988. "Missing-Data Adjustments in Large Surveys: Reply," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 6(3), pages 300-301, July.
- Jae Kwang Kim, 2004. "Fractional hot deck imputation," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 91(3), pages 559-578, September.
- Schenker, Nathaniel & Taylor, Jeremy M. G., 1996. "Partially parametric techniques for multiple imputation," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 425-446, August.
- Barry T. Hirsch & Edward J. Schumacher, 2004.
"Match Bias in Wage Gap Estimates Due to Earnings Imputation,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(3), pages 689-722, July.
- Hirsch, Barry & Schumacher, Edward J., 2003. "Match Bias in Wage Gap Estimates Due to Earnings Imputation," IZA Discussion Papers 783, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Little, Roderick J A, 1988. "Missing-Data Adjustments in Large Surveys," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 6(3), pages 287-96, July.
- J. K. Kim, 2002. "A note on approximate Bayesian bootstrap imputation," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 89(2), pages 470-477, June.
- Horton N. J. & Lipsitz S. R., 2001. "Multiple Imputation in Practice: Comparison of Software Packages for Regression Models With Missing Variables," The American Statistician, American Statistical Association, vol. 55, pages 244-254, August.
- Joseph G. Ibrahim & Ming-Hui Chen & Stuart R. Lipsitz & Amy H. Herring, 2005. "Missing-Data Methods for Generalized Linear Models: A Comparative Review," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 332-346, March.
- Vicki Freedman & Douglas Wolf, 1995. "A case study on the use of multiple imputation," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 32(3), pages 459-470, August.
- John B. Carlin & Ning Li & Philip Greenwood & Carolyn Coffey, 2003. "Tools for analyzing multiple imputed datasets," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 226-244, September.
- Patrick Royston, 2004. "Multiple imputation of missing values," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 227-241, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2007. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Padma Prakash)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.