Crafting a Graduation Pathway for the Ultra Poor
The ultra poor are caught in a below-subsistence trap from which it is difficult for them to break free using available resources and mechanisms. Time is not an ally for the ultra poor, as things generally do not get better for them over time. More often than not, ultra poverty tends to be chronic and intergenerational. Existing development approaches largely do not work for the ultra poor and consequently, they tend to be left out. The ultra poor rely largely on informal charities, having its own rules of inclusion and exclusion based on complex systems of patronage.
References listed on IDEAS
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- Ghatak, Maitreesh & Guinnane, Timothy W., 1999.
"The economics of lending with joint liability: theory and practice,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 195-228, October.
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- Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1990. "Peer Monitoring and Credit Markets," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 351-366, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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