A retail store can profitably commit to the lowest prices because that allows it to take significantly greater market share. If a discount store acquires a competing convenience store, the average retail price tends to go up. When the upstream market is oligopolistic, the discounter can exert buyer power in the upstream market and thus earn even more profits. That also allows the discounter to lower its competitors' profit margins and sales. The average retail price goes down because the buyer power leads to more sales through the discounter. However, the consumers as a whole may not better off, and the social welfare decreases.
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- Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
- Chen, Zhiqi, 2003.
" Dominant Retailers and the Countervailing-Power Hypothesis,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(4), pages 612-625, Winter.
- Zhiqi Chen, 2001. "Dominant Retailers and the Countervailing Power Hypothesis," Carleton Economic Papers 01-05, Carleton University, Department of Economics, revised 2003.
- Dobson, Paul W & Waterson, Michael, 1997. "Countervailing Power and Consumer Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(441), pages 418-430, March.
- D. B. DeLoach, 1962. "Marketing through Discount Stores," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 44(1), pages 169-177.
- von Ungern-Sternberg, Thomas, 1996. "Countervailing power revisited," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 507-519, June.
- David M. Kreps & Jose A. Scheinkman, 1983. "Quantity Precommitment and Bertrand Competition Yield Cournot Outcomes," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 326-337, Autumn. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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