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Enrichissement de la croissance en emploi et productivité

  • Nicolas CARNOT

    (Ministère de l’Economie, des Finances et de l’Industrie, Paris)

  • Alain QUINET

    (Ministère de l’Economie, des Finances et de l’Industrie, Paris)

Registered author(s):

    Le ralentissement des gains de productivité par tête observé depuis la fin des années 80 en Europe, et notamment en France, est susceptible de plusieurs types d'interprétations. Il pourrait refléter un tassement des gains de la productivité globale des facteurs, une substitution des têtes aux heures ou un rééquilibrage des productivités apparentes des différents facteurs de production. L'objet de cet article est de souligner le rôle de ce mouvement de rééquilibrage, en réponse à une baisse du coût relatif du travail, notamment peu qualifié. Dans cette perspective, la baisse des gains de productivité par tête, loin d'être défavorable, refléterait un enrichissement de la croissance en emploi dans un contexte de décrue du chômage structurel. Nous illustrons les mécanismes sous-jacents en nous appuyant sur un modèle d'offre et de demande de travail à deux qualifications. La version dynamique du modèle est calibrée afin de donner une image des évolutions temporelles de la production, de l'emploi, ainsi que des productivités apparentes des facteurs en réponse à des chocs de coûts.

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    File URL: http://sites.uclouvain.be/econ/DP/REL/2003014.pdf
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    Paper provided by Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) in its series Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) with number 2003014.

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    Length: 22
    Date of creation: 01 Mar 2003
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvre:2003014
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    1. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Hammour, Mohamad L., 1998. "Jobless growth: appropriability, factor substitution, and unemployment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 51-94, June.
    2. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, March.
    3. P. BISCOURP & Ch. GIANELLA, 2001. "Substitution and complementarity between capital, skilled and less skilled workers: an analysis at the firm level in the French manufacturing industry," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2001-13, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
    4. Bob Rowthorn, 1999. "Unemployment, Capital-Labor Substitution, and Economic Growth," IMF Working Papers 99/43, International Monetary Fund.
    5. SNEESSENS, Henri R. & SHADMAN-MEHTA, Fatemeh, 1994. "Real Wages, Skill Mismatch and Unemployment Persistence," CORE Discussion Papers 1994050, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
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