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Cincuenta años de la economía del Cesar: De la agroindustria del algodón a la extracción del Carbón

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  • Jaime Bonet-Morón

    ()

  • María Aguilera-Díaz

    ()

Abstract

El Cesar es uno de los cuatro departamentos del Caribe colombiano que se constituyeron en la década de los sesenta del siglo XX. En los cincuenta años transcurridos desde su creación, su economía experimentó cambios estructurales ya que pasó de ser una región primordialmente agropecuaria a ser una economía minera. Este estudio analiza la historia económica cesarence basada en tres etapas de su desarrollo: (i) los primeros 12 años correspondieron a una bonanza económica generada por la agroindustria del algodón, donde tuvo un alto crecimiento económico y alcanzó uno de los mayores ingresos per cápita del país; (ii) luego, entró durante dos décadas en una etapa de estancamiento, por la crisis algodonera que afectó otras actividades como la ganadería y, además, fue un periodo de inseguridad en el campo por las acciones de grupos al margen de la ley; y (iii) en los últimos 17 años la minería de carbón se ha convertido en la actividad que genera el mayor porcentaje de su producto interno bruto y provee regalías que han incrementado las arcas de los presupuestos municipales y departamental. **** ABSTRACT: Cesar was one of the four departments in the Colombian Caribbean region that was constituted 1960s. During the last five decades its economy has faced important structural changes, such as going from an agricultural model to a mining dependent economy. This paper analyzes the economic history of the department based on three stages of its development. The first 12 years corresponded to the boom of the cotton agroindustry, where the main characteristic was a high economic and population growth, with one of the highest per capita income in the country. Then, the department went through a two decade stagnation period mainly caused by the cotton’s production crisis where some other primary sector activities were also affected. On top of that, it was a period of increasing violence due to the terrorist actions from illegal armed groups. The last period of analysis covers the last 17 years where coal mining strengthened and became the activity that generates the highest participation of Cesar’s gross domestic product and provides economic resources for municipal and departmental governments.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaime Bonet-Morón & María Aguilera-Díaz, 2018. "Cincuenta años de la economía del Cesar: De la agroindustria del algodón a la extracción del Carbón," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 016495, Banco de la República - Economía Regional.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000101:016495
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    Cited by:

    1. Jaime Bonet-Morón & Diana Ricciulli-Marín, 2019. "Planificación urbana en América Latina: el caso de Valledupar (Colombia)," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 51, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    2. Jaime Bonet-Morón & Diana Ricciulli-Marín, 2019. "Planificación urbana en América Latina: el caso de Valledupar (Colombia)," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 017370, Banco de la República - Economía Regional.
    3. Andrea Otero-Cortés & Fernando Herrera & Juan Manuel Monroy, 2019. "Análisis de la Pobreza y Condiciones de Vida en Valledupar," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 278, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Departamento del Cesar; Caribe colombiano; agricultura; minería; Department of Cesar; Colombian Caribbean; agriculture; mining.;

    JEL classification:

    • N56 - Economic History - - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Extractive Industries - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • Q34 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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