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Financing and Takeovers

Author

Listed:
  • Erwan Morellec

    (University of Lausanne, Swiss Finance Institute and CEPR)

  • Alexei Zhdanov

    (School of Management, George Mason University)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the interaction between financial leverage and takeover activity. We develop a dynamic model of takeovers in which the financing strategies of bidding firms and the timing and terms of takeovers are jointly determined. In the paper, capital structure plays the role of a commitment device, and determines the outcome of the acquisition contest. We demonstrate that there exists an asymmetric equilibrium in financing policies with endogenous leverage, bankruptcy, and takeover terms, in which the bidder with the lowest leverage wins the takeover contest. Based on the resulting equilibrium, the model generates a number of new predictions. In particular, the model predicts that the leverage of the winning bidder is below the industry average and that acquirers should lever up after the takeover consummation. The model also relates the dispersion in leverage ratios to various industry characteristics, such as the volatility of cash flows, effective tax rates, and bankruptcy costs.

Suggested Citation

  • Erwan Morellec & Alexei Zhdanov, 2006. "Financing and Takeovers," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 06-22, Swiss Finance Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp0622
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Cited by:

    1. Strebulaev, Ilya A. & Whited, Toni M., 2012. "Dynamic Models and Structural Estimation in Corporate Finance," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 6(1–2), pages 1-163, November.
    2. Tao, Qizhi & Sun, Wenjia & Zhu, Yingjun & Zhang, Ting, 2017. "Do firms have leverage targets? New evidence from mergers and acquisitions in China," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 41-54.
    3. repec:eee:jbfina:v:81:y:2017:i:c:p:200-206 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:finana:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:203-212 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Mohitosh Kejriwal & Pierre Perron, 2006. "Data Dependent Rules for the Selection of the Number of Leads and Lags in the Dynamic OLS Cointegrating Regression," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2006-035, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    6. Hackbarth, Dirk & Miao, Jianjun, 2012. "The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions in oligopolistic industries," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 585-609.
    7. Furfine, Craig H. & Rosen, Richard J., 2011. "Mergers increase default risk," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 832-849, September.
    8. repec:eee:finana:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:144-158 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Agliardi, Elettra & Amel-Zadeh, Amir & Koussis, Nicos, 2016. "Leverage changes and growth options in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 37-58.
    10. Vladimirov, Vladimir, 2015. "Financing bidders in takeover contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 534-557.
    11. Tarsalewska, Monika, 2015. "The timing of mergers along the production chain, capital structure, and risk dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 51-64.
    12. Theodosios Dimopoulos & Stefano Sacchetto, 2014. "Merger Activity in Industry Equilibrium," GSIA Working Papers 2012-E47, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    13. Dirk Hackbarth & Jianjun Miao, "undated". "The Timing and Returns of Mergers and Acquisitions in Oligopolistic Industries," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series wp2008-022, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    14. Andrey Malenko & Alexander Gorbenko, 2013. "Means of payment and timing of mergers and acquisitions in a dynamic economy," 2013 Meeting Papers 928, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    15. Tian, Yuan, 2016. "Optimal capital structure and investment decisions under time-inconsistent preferences," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 83-104.
    16. repec:eee:mulfin:v:40:y:2017:i:c:p:14-32 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Madura, Jeff & Ngo, Thanh & Viale, Ariel M., 2012. "Why do merger premiums vary across industries and over time?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 49-62.
    18. repec:eee:jfinec:v:126:y:2017:i:1:p:200-226 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Flor, Christian Riis & Hesel, Søren, 2015. "Uncertain dynamics, correlation effects, and robust investment decisions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 278-298.
    20. Koerniadi, Hardjo & Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar & Tourani-Rad, Alireza, 2015. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and default risk," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 336-348.
    21. Jandik, Tomas & Lallemand, Justin, 2014. "Value impact of debt issuances by targets of withdrawn takeovers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 475-494.
    22. Gregory, Alan & O'Donohoe, Sheila, 2014. "Do cross border and domestic acquisitions differ? Evidence from the acquisition of UK targets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 61-69.
    23. Marc Martos-Vila & Matthew Rhodes-Kropf & Jarrad Harford, 2013. "Financial vs. Strategic Buyers," NBER Working Papers 19378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Eckbo, B Espen & Makaew, Tanakorn & Thorburn, Karin S, 2017. "Are stock-financed takeovers opportunistic?," CEPR Discussion Papers 11974, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    takeovers; option games; real options; capital structure;

    JEL classification:

    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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