Parental time and child outcomes. Does gender matter?
Using different econometric specifications this paper analyzes the relationship between the time parents spend with their children, child-related expenditure and the results obtained by them, with particular attention to gender differences. The authors use PSID-CDS data from 1997 to 2007 and consider separately boysï¿½ and girlsï¿½ test scores in reading and writing and math and logical reasoning. The amount of time mothers spend with children is always greater than fathers but changes over the life cycle of the children. In fact, the time mothers spend with children decreases as the child grows up and is greater with daughters, while the reverse is true of fathers. The estimates show that the impact of mothersï¿½ and fathersï¿½ time with children varies considerably with respect to the two cognitive tests, and is considerably greater in the case of highly-educated parents.
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