IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Economics Of Intellectual Property Rights Under Imperfect Enforcement


  • Giannakas, Konstantinos


The introduction of intellectual property rights (IPRs) is one of the most notable features of agricultural biotechnology. So are growing concerns about the widespread violation of IPRs in developing countries. This paper develops a model of heterogeneous producers to examine the economic causes of IPR infringement and its consequences for the welfare of the interest groups and the pricing and adoption of a new technology (i.e., a genetically modified seed) in the context of a small open developing economy. Enforcement of IPRs, and pricing and adoption of the new technology are modeled as a sequential game between the government that enforces the IPRs, a foreign innovating firm that prices the new technology, and the developing country's producers who make the production and cheating decisions. Analytical results show that producer compliance with the provisions of IPRs is not the natural outcome of self-interest and complete deterrence of IPR infringement is not always economically optimal. IPR infringement affects the welfare of the interest groups and has important ramifications for the pricing and adoption of the new technology. The quantitative nature of the results depends critically on the existing labeling regime. The analysis also shows that differences in the level of IPR enforcement provide an alternative justification for (and explanation of) differences in the pricing of the new technology in different countries around the world - a strategy adopted by leading innovators in the sector. Finally, the results suggest that if the penalties for IPR infringement under the TRIPs agreement follow the custom of retaliatory sanctions under the GATT, enforcement of IPRs will remain imperfect and the innovators' ability to obtain value for their biotech traits will still be limited.

Suggested Citation

  • Giannakas, Konstantinos, 2001. "The Economics Of Intellectual Property Rights Under Imperfect Enforcement," 2001 Annual meeting, August 5-8, Chicago, IL 20584, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea01:20584

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Maxwell, Brett J. & Wilson, William W. & Dahl, Bruce L., 2004. "Marketing Mechanisms In Gm Grains And Oilseeds," Agribusiness & Applied Economics Report 23639, North Dakota State University, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics.
    2. Gaisford, James D., 2002. "Agricultural Biotechnology and the FTAA: Issues and Opportunities," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 3(2), pages 1-18.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea01:20584. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.