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The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China : Challenges and Prospects

Author

Listed:
  • Fang Cai
  • John Giles
  • Philip O'Keefe
  • Dewen Wang

Abstract

Although average incomes in China have risen dramatically since the 1980s, concerns are increasing that the rural elderly have not benefited from growth to the same extent as younger people and the urban elderly. Concerns about welfare of the rural elderly combine spatial and demographic issues. Large gaps exist between conditions in coastal and interior regions and between conditions in urban and rural areas of the country. In addition to differences in income by geography, considerable differences exist across demographic groups in the level of coverage by safety nets, in the benefits received through the social welfare system, and in the risks of falling into poverty. This book aims to do two things: first, it provides detailed empirical analysis of the welfare and living conditions of the rural elderly since the early 1990s in the context of large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and second, it explores the evolution of the rural pension system in China over the past two decades and raises a number of issues on its current implementation and future directions. Although the two sections of the book are distinct in analytical terms, they are closely linked in policy terms: the first section demonstrates in several ways a rationale for greater public intervention in the welfare of the rural elderly, and the second documents the response of policy to date and options to consider for deepening the coverage and effects of the rural pension system over the longer term.

Suggested Citation

  • Fang Cai & John Giles & Philip O'Keefe & Dewen Wang, 2012. "The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China : Challenges and Prospects," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2249.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:2249
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    File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2249/675220PUB0EPI0067882B09780821386859.pdf?sequence=1
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kakwani, Nanak & Subbarao, Kalanidhi, 2005. "Aging and poverty in Africa and the role of social pensions," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 32752, The World Bank.
    2. Robert Holzmann & David A. Robalino & Noriyuki Takayama, 2009. "Closing the Coverage Gap : The Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2651.
    3. Robert Holzmann & Edward Palmer, 2006. "Pension Reform : Issues and Prospects for Non-Financial Defined Contribution (NDC) Schemes," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6983.
    4. Sudhir Rajkumar & Mark C. Dorfman, 2011. "Governance and Investment of Public Pension Assets : Practitioners' Perspectives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2553.
    5. Kalanidhi Subbarao, 2005. "Aging and Poverty in Africa and the Role of Social Pensions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11785, The World Bank.
    6. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2007. "China's (uneven) progress against poverty," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 1-42.
    7. Kwang-Yeol Yoo & Alain de Serres, 2004. "Tax Treatment of Private Pension Savings in OECD Countries and the Net Tax Cost Per Unit of Contribution to Tax-Favoured Schemes," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 406, OECD Publishing.
    8. Eric M. Engen & William G. Gale, 2000. "The Effects of 401(k) Plans on Household Wealth: Differences Across Earnings Groups," NBER Working Papers 8032, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Palacios, Robert & Sluchynsky, Oleksiy, 2006. "Social pensions Part I : their role in the overall pension system," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 36237, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. World Bank, 2014. "Fostering a Digitally Inclusive Aging Society in China : The Potential of Public Libraries," World Bank Other Operational Studies 19979, The World Bank.
    2. Niu, Chiyu & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2016. "No Country for Old Men: An Investment Motive for Downward Inter-generational Transfers in Rural China," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236033, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Coeurdacier, Nicolas & Guibaud, Stéphane & Jin, Keyu, 2014. "Fertility policies and social security reforms in China," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 66107, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Ji, Yueqing & Hu, Xuezhi & Zhu, Jing & Zhong, Funing, 2017. "Demographic change and its impact on farmers' field production decisions," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 64-71.
    5. Lingguo Cheng & Hong Liu & Ye Zhang & Zhong Zhao, 2018. "The heterogeneous impact of pension income on elderly living arrangements: evidence from China’s new rural pension scheme," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, pages 155-192.
    6. Chen, Xi & Wang, Tianyu, 2016. "Does Money Relieve Depression? Evidence from Social Pension Eligibility," IZA Discussion Papers 10037, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Ma, Shuang & Mu, Ren, 2017. "Forced off Farm? Labor Allocation Response to Land Requisition in Rural China," IZA Discussion Papers 10640, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Cheng, Lingguo & Liu, Hong & Zhang, Ye & Zhao, Zhong, 2016. "The Health Implications of Social Pensions: Evidence from China's New Rural Pension Scheme," IZA Discussion Papers 9621, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. AO, Xiang & JIANG, Dawei & ZHAO, Zhong, 2016. "The impact of rural–urban migration on the health of the left-behind parents," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 126-139.
    10. Xi Chen & Lipeng Hu & Jody L. Sindelar, 2017. "Leaving Money on the Table? Suboptimal Enrollment in the New Social Pension Program in China," NBER Working Papers 24065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Feng, Zhixin & Jones, Kelvyn & Wang, Wenfei Winnie, 2015. "An exploratory discrete-time multilevel analysis of the effect of social support on the survival of elderly people in China," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 181-189.

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