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Green Growth: Important Determinants



    () (Colorado State University, USA;
    Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan)


    () (Research Associate, Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), Islamabad, Pakistan)


We discuss the important determinants requires to develop green patents, which eventually reinforce green growth. The theoretical framework examined four elements, the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs), research and development (R&D) expenditures, market size and environmental taxations. We empirically test the green patent data to test the interrelationship of green patents representing the green innovations and IPR, R&D expenditures, market size and environmental taxations. Keeping in view the availability of the data we studied 11 developed countries, which are Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Finland, Germany, Sweden, U.K and U.S. The panel data can better handled the technological change rather than the pure cross section or pure time series data. Therefore, this study used the Pooled Least Square estimation techniques like Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and random effect model (REM) for both balance period of 1995–2010 and unbalanced period from 1995–2010. We only interpreted the balance period results depicting the enforcement of IPRs has negative and significant impact on green patents while the R&D expenditures, market size and environmental taxations has positive and significant impact on the green patents e.g. development of green innovations. We believe that the enforcement of explanatory variables will eventually acquire green growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Ghulam Samad & Rabia Manzoor, 2015. "Green Growth: Important Determinants," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 60(02), pages 1-15.
  • Handle: RePEc:wsi:serxxx:v:60:y:2015:i:02:n:s0217590815500149
    DOI: 10.1142/S0217590815500149

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pervez Zamurrad Janjua & Ghulam Samad, 2007. "Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth: The Case of Middle Income Developing Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 711-722.
    2. David Ockwell & Jim Watson & Alexandra Mallett & Ruediger Haum & Gordon MacKerron & Anne-Marie Verbeken, 2010. "Enhancing Developing Country Access to Eco-Innovation: The Case of Technology Transfer and Climate Change in a Post-2012 Policy Framework," OECD Environment Working Papers 12, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Xiaofei Lv & Xiaoli Lu & Guo Fu & Chunyou Wu, 2018. "A Spatial-Temporal Approach to Evaluate the Dynamic Evolution of Green Growth in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-15, July.
    2. Capasso, Marco & Hansen, Teis & Heiberg, Jonas & Klitkou, Antje & Steen, Markus, 2019. "Green growth – A synthesis of scientific findings," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 390-402.

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    More about this item


    Intellectual property rights; foreign direct investment; O34; F19;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other


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