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Identification, Long-Run Relations, and Fundamental Innovations in a Simple Cointegrated System


  • William J. Crowder
  • Dennis L. Hoffman
  • Robert H. Rasche


This paper examines the roles played by innovations identified from a simple four-variable VAR characterized by cointegration. Using knowledge of cointegration rank and “textbook” relations that link macroeconomic aggregates, we identify distinct “real” and “nominal” innovations that dictate the long-run behavior of the model. We also examine the explanatory power of transitory innovations that are orthogonal to these permanent shocks. One of the permanent shocks displays all the characteristics of a technology or “supply” innovation, while one of the transitory innovations--identified by imposing short-run price rigidity--is interpretable as a “demand” side impulse. The permanent nominal shock bears the imprint of an innovation in aggregate inflation expectations. Historical decomposition and comparison with variables that are external to the model reveals the relative importance of the shocks at various episodes. © 1999 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Suggested Citation

  • William J. Crowder & Dennis L. Hoffman & Robert H. Rasche, 1999. "Identification, Long-Run Relations, and Fundamental Innovations in a Simple Cointegrated System," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 109-121, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:81:y:1999:i:1:p:109-121

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kenneth R Troske & William J Carrington, 1992. "Gender Segregation Small Firms," Working Papers 92-13, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised May 1993.
    2. Walter Oi, 1983. "The Fixed Employment Costs of Specialized Labor," NBER Chapters,in: The Measurement of Labor Cost, pages 63-122 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Anthony Garratt & Kevin Lee & M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin, 2003. "A Long run structural macroeconometric model of the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(487), pages 412-455, April.
    2. Donald Robertson & Anthony Garratt & Stephen Wright, 2006. "Permanent vs transitory components and economic fundamentals," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 521-542.
    3. Anderson, Richard G. & Hoffman, Dennis L. & Rasche, Robert H., 2002. "A vector error-correction forecasting model of the US economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 569-598, December.
    4. Perry Burnett & Harvey Cutler & Stephen Davies, 2012. "Understanding The Unique Impacts Of Economic Growth Variables," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(3), pages 451-468, August.
    5. Iacoviello, Matteo, 2000. "House prices and the macroeconomy in Europe: Results from a structural var analysis," Working Paper Series 0018, European Central Bank.
    6. Céline Gauthier & Fu Chun Li, 2006. "Linking Real Activity and Financial Markets: The Bonds, Equity, and Money (BEAM) Model," Staff Working Papers 06-42, Bank of Canada.
    7. Fisher, Lance A. & Huh, Hyeon-seung & Tallman, Ellis W., 2003. "Permanent income and transitory variation in investment and output," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 149-168, June.
    8. Rita Duarte & Carlos Marques, 2013. "The dynamic effects of shocks to wages and prices in the United States and the Euro Area," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 613-638, April.
    9. Pesaran M.H. & Schuermann T. & Weiner S.M., 2004. "Modeling Regional Interdependencies Using a Global Error-Correcting Macroeconometric Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 129-162, April.
    10. Céline Gauthier & Fuchun Li, 2005. "Linking real activity and financial markets: the first steps towards a small estimated model for Canada," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy, volume 22, pages 253-72 Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Hans Christian Kongsted & Heino Bohn Nielsen, 2004. "Analysing I(2) Systems by Transformed Vector Autoregressions," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 66(3), pages 379-397, July.
    12. Crowder, William J., 2012. "The liquidity effect: Evidence from the U.S," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 315-317.
    13. Chen, Pu & Schneider, Elena & Frohn, Joachim, 2008. "A Long-Run Structural Macroeconometric Model for Germany: An Empirical Note," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-12.
    14. Choo, Han Gwang & Kurita, Takamitsu, 2011. "An empirical investigation of monetary interaction in the Korean economy," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 267-280, April.

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