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An exact and explicit solution for the valuation of American put options

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  • Song-Ping Zhu

Abstract

In this paper, an exact and explicit solution of the well-known Black-Scholes equation for the valuation of American put options is presented for the first time. To the best of the author's knowledge, a closed-form analytical formula has never been found for the valuation of American options of finite maturity, although there have been quite a few approximate solutions and numerical approaches proposed. The closed-form exact solution presented here is written in the form of a Taylor's series expansion, which contains infinitely many terms. However, only about 30 terms are actually needed to generate a convergent numerical solution if the solution of the corresponding European option is taken as the initial guess of the solution series. The optimal exercise boundary, which is the main difficulty of the problem, is found as an explicit function of the risk-free interest rate, the volatility and the time to expiration. A key feature of our solution procedure, which is based on the homotopy-analysis method, is the optimal exercise boundary being elegantly and temporarily removed in the solution process of each order, and, consequently, the solution of a linear problem can be analytically worked out at each order, resulting in a completely analytical and exact series-expansion solution for the optimal exercise boundary and the option price of American put options.

Suggested Citation

  • Song-Ping Zhu, 2006. "An exact and explicit solution for the valuation of American put options," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 229-242.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:quantf:v:6:y:2006:i:3:p:229-242
    DOI: 10.1080/14697680600699811
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Huang, Jing-zhi & Subrahmanyam, Marti G & Yu, G George, 1996. "Pricing and Hedging American Options: A Recursive Integration Method," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 277-300.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Wenting Chen & Kai Du & Xinzi Qiu, 2017. "Analytic properties of American option prices under a modified Black-Scholes equation with spatial fractional derivatives," Papers 1701.01515, arXiv.org.
    2. Zhongkai Liu & Tao Pang, 2016. "An efficient grid lattice algorithm for pricing American-style options," International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1), pages 36-55.
    3. Jun Cheng & Jin Zhang, 2012. "Analytical pricing of American options," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 157-192, July.
    4. repec:eee:dyncon:v:80:y:2017:i:c:p:75-100 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Minqiang Li, 2010. "Analytical approximations for the critical stock prices of American options: a performance comparison," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 75-99, April.
    6. Liu, Yanchu & Cui, Zhenyu & Zhang, Ning, 2016. "Integral representation of vega for American put options," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 204-208.
    7. Chockalingam, Arun & Muthuraman, Kumar, 2015. "An approximate moving boundary method for American option pricing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(2), pages 431-438.
    8. Song-Ping Zhu & Nhat-Tan Le & Wen-Ting Chen & Xiaoping Lu, 2015. "Pricing Parisian down-and-in options," Papers 1511.01564, arXiv.org.
    9. Leunglung Chan & Song-Ping Zhu, 2014. "An exact and explicit formula for pricing lookback options with regime switching," Papers 1407.4864, arXiv.org.
    10. Jing Zhao & Hoi Ying Wong, 2012. "A closed-form solution to American options under general diffusion processes," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 725-737, July.
    11. Leunglung Chan & Song-Ping Zhu, 2014. "An exact and explicit formula for pricing Asian options with regime switching," Papers 1407.5091, arXiv.org.
    12. Minqiang Li, 2010. "A quasi-analytical interpolation method for pricing American options under general multi-dimensional diffusion processes," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 177-217, July.
    13. Takayuki Sakuma & Yuji Yamada, 2014. "Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to Option Pricing Under Lévy Processes," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer;Japanese Association of Financial Economics and Engineering, vol. 21(1), pages 1-14, March.
    14. Ravi Kashyap, 2016. "Securities Lending Strategies, Valuation of Term Loans using Option Theory," Papers 1609.01274, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2016.
    15. Zhu, Song-Ping & Chen, Wen-Ting, 2013. "An inverse finite element method for pricing American options," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 231-250.
    16. Mojtaba Hajipour & Alaeddin Malek, 2015. "Efficient High-Order Numerical Methods for Pricing of Options," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 45(1), pages 31-47, January.
    17. Chen, Wenting & Yan, Bowen & Lian, Guanghua & Zhang, Ying, 2016. "Numerically pricing American options under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion model," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 451(C), pages 180-189.

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