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Assessing The Effectiveness Of Sport Sponsorships – An Empirical Examination


  • Reinhard Grohs
  • Udo Wagner
  • Sabine Vsetecka


Recent surveys find that while managers favored issues of media coverage not more than ten years ago, now they rate sponsor awareness and image transfer from the sponsored event to the sponsor as the main reasons for engaging in sport C. However, the evaluation of C has not kept up with this change in priorities. Companies seem to be reluctant to evaluate sponsor awareness even though measurement is straightforward and not very costly. An important reason might be that previous studies showed unsatisfying effects of “ambush marketing”. In this form of marketing, other firms make consumers believe, incorrectly, that these companies are the actual sponsors of an event. In the case of image transfer, evaluation seems to be difficult due to a lack of a compelling comprehensive and testable model. We examine these obstacles of assessing sponsor awareness and image transfer in sport sponsorships in two ways. As a means of reducing the danger of ambush marketing, we analyze what drives correct sponsor identification. Our empirical results indicate that event-sponsor fit, event involvement, and exposure are the dominant factors predicting sponsor recall. These factors offer sponsors a basis for successful sponsorship planning and execution through the selection of an appropriate sponsorship. Second, we propose and empirically test a model that assesses image transfer in sport sponsorships. We find support for a basic level of image transfer for all sponsors. However, more detailed research and interpretation of results suggest that the magnitude of image transfer depends on two factors, sponsorship leverage and event-sponsor fit.

Suggested Citation

  • Reinhard Grohs & Udo Wagner & Sabine Vsetecka, 2004. "Assessing The Effectiveness Of Sport Sponsorships – An Empirical Examination," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 56(2), pages 119-138, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:sbr:abstra:v:56:y:2004:i:2:p:119-138

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    Cited by:

    1. Oliver Budzinski & Janina Satzer, 2011. "Sports Business and Multisided Markets: Towards a New Analytical Framework? (Long Version)," Working Papers 109/11, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics.
    2. repec:eee:ijrema:v:27:y:2010:i:2:p:151-160 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Grohs, Reinhard & Reisinger, Heribert, 2014. "Sponsorship effects on brand image: The role of exposure and activity involvement," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(5), pages 1018-1025.
    4. Siv Skard & Helge Thorbjørnsen, 2014. "Is Publicity Always Better than Advertising? The Role of Brand Reputation in Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 124(1), pages 149-160, September.
    5. Popp, Bastian & Woratschek, Herbert, 2016. "Introducing branded communities in sport for building strong brand relations in social media," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 183-197.
    6. repec:exl:25engi:v:27:y:2016:i:1:p:78-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Petrovici, Dan & Shan, Yujian & Gorton, Matthew & Ford, John, 2015. "Patriot games? Determinants of responses to Chinese and foreign sponsors of the Beijing Olympics," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(6), pages 1324-1331.
    8. Konstantinios Koronios & Marina Psiloutsikou & Athanasios Kriemadis & Petros Kolovos, 2016. "The effect of perceived motivation of sports sponsorship: Evidence from basketball fans," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 9(2), pages 33-45, June.

    More about this item


    Ambush Marketing; Image Transfer; Sponsor Awareness; Sponsorships; Sponsorship Effectiveness.;

    JEL classification:

    • M31 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Marketing


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