IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Age at Motherhood and Child Development: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort


  • Denise Hawkes
  • Heather Joshi


Age at entry to motherhood is increasingly socially polarised in the UK. Early childbearing typically occurs among women from disadvantaged backgrounds relative to women with later first births. The Millennium Cohort finds differentials in their children's development, cognitive and behavioural, at age 5, by mother's age. These could be due to difficulties facing immature mothers, but much of it is attributable to young mothers’ social origins, or inequalities apparent at the age 0 survey, which may also have had earlier origins. The developmental penalty left to be attributed to the mother's age per se is, at most, modest.

Suggested Citation

  • Denise Hawkes & Heather Joshi, 2012. "Age at Motherhood and Child Development: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 222(1), pages 52-66, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:niesru:v:222:y:2012:i:1:p:r52-r66

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Peter Diamond, 1994. "Ranking, Unemployment Duration, and Wages," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(3), pages 417-434.
    2. Ray Barrell & Dawn Holland & Ian Hurst, 2012. "Fiscal Consolidation: Part 2. Fiscal Multipliers and Fiscal Consolidations," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 933, OECD Publishing.
    3. von Hagen, Jürgen & Schuknecht, Ludger & Wolswijk, Guido, 2011. "Government bond risk premiums in the EU revisited: The impact of the financial crisis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 36-43, March.
    4. Bernoth, Kerstin & Erdogan, Burcu, 2012. "Sovereign bond yield spreads: A time-varying coefficient approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 639-656.
    5. Thomas Laubach, 2009. "New Evidence on the Interest Rate Effects of Budget Deficits and Debt," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(4), pages 858-885, June.
    6. Alan J. Auerbach & Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2012. "Fiscal Multipliers in Recession and Expansion," NBER Chapters,in: Fiscal Policy after the Financial Crisis, pages 63-98 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ilzetzki, Ethan & Mendoza, Enrique G. & Végh, Carlos A., 2013. "How big (small?) are fiscal multipliers?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 239-254.
    8. Smith, Jennifer & Elsby, Michael, 2010. "A Great Recession in the UK Labour Market : A Transatlantic Perspective," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 945, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. Calmfors, Lars & Lang, Harald, 1995. "Macroeconomic Effects of Active Labour Market Programmes in a Union Wage-Setting Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 601-619, May.
    10. Manning, Alan, 1993. "Wage Bargaining and the Phillips Curve: The Identification and Specification of Aggregate Wage Equations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 98-118, January.
    11. Nickell, Stephen J, 1987. "Why Is Wage Inflation in Britain So High?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(1), pages 103-128, February.
    12. Michael W.L. Elsby & Jennifer C. Smith, 2010. "The Great Recession In The Uk Labour Market: A Transatlantic Perspective," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 214(1), pages 26-37, October.
    13. Ray Barrell & Tatiana Fic & Iana Liadze, 2009. "Fiscal Policy Effectiveness in the Banking Crisis," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 207(1), pages 43-50, January.
    14. Ray Barrell & Dawn Holland & Ian Hurst, 2012. "Fiscal multipliers and prospects for consolidation," OECD Journal: Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2012(1), pages 71-102.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Andrew Dickerson & Gurleen K. Popli, 2016. "Persistent poverty and children's cognitive development: evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(2), pages 535-558, February.
    2. Mónica Hernández-Alava & Gurleen Popli, 2017. "Children’s Development and Parental Input: Evidence From the UK Millennium Cohort Study," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(2), pages 485-511, April.
    3. Jaimee Stuart & Gail Pacheco & Mary Hedges & Susan Morton, 2013. "Monkey see, monkey do? How do shifts in parental socio-economic class influence children's outcomes?," Working Papers 2013-07, Auckland University of Technology, Department of Economics.

    More about this item


    Child cognitive development; behavioural adjustment; teenage motherhood; maternal age; Millennium Cohort Study;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:niesru:v:222:y:2012:i:1:p:r52-r66. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.