IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Modeling Cities in 3D: A Cellular Automaton Approach


  • Lucien Benguigui

    (Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel)

  • Daniel Czamanski
  • Rafael Roth


This paper presents a quasi-3D cellular automaton (CA) simulation model of cities. A 2D CA model includes a cell attribute that represents building height information. Dynamic processes are depicted using four parameters: initial building coverage, interaction with adjacent neighborhood, inertia, and noise. These parameters can assume simple economic interpretation. Some combinations of values of the parameters result in cities that experience paths of convergent growth. Some values lead to cities that experience phase transitions. We suggest a typology of resulting urban patterns and note the emergence of spatial clusters of high-rise buildings.

Suggested Citation

  • Lucien Benguigui & Daniel Czamanski & Rafael Roth, 2008. "Modeling Cities in 3D: A Cellular Automaton Approach," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 35(3), pages 413-430, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:envirb:v:35:y:2008:i:3:p:413-430

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Czamanski & Rafael Roth, 2011. "Characteristic time, developers’ behavior and leapfrogging dynamics of high-rise buildings," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 46(1), pages 101-118, February.
    2. Yanyan Xu & Miao Liu & Yuanman Hu & Chunlin Li & Zaiping Xiong, 2019. "Analysis of Three-Dimensional Space Expansion Characteristics in Old Industrial Area Renewal Using GIS and Barista: A Case Study of Tiexi District, Shenyang, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-1, March.
    3. Czamanski, Daniel & Broitman, Dani, 2017. "Information and communication technology and the spatial evolution of mature cities," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 30-38.
    4. Guan, ChengHe, 2019. "Spatial distribution of high-rise buildings and its relationship to public transit development in Shanghai," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 371-380.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:envirb:v:35:y:2008:i:3:p:413-430. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.