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Y a-t-il plus de pauvreté au Québec qu’au Canada?

Author

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  • Bibi, Sami

    () (CIRPÉE, Université Laval)

  • Duclos, Jean-Yves

    () (Département d'économique, CIRPÉE, Université Laval)

Abstract

We analyze the evolution of poverty in Quebec and in Canada from 1996 to 2005 and the effects of major elements of the personal tax and transfer system on poverty. This analysis complements the usual estimates of poverty made by Statistics Canada, l’Institut de la Statistique du Québec and the ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale. Robustness tests are conducted to address the important problem of the choice of the poverty line and of the poverty index. The results show that the ranking of provinces in terms of absolute and relative poverty depends on both the line and the index chosen. Our preferred methods of evaluation and comparison of poverty indicate that Quebec does not usually show more absolute and relative poverty than other provinces, and that poverty in Quebec is robustly and statistically lower than in British Columbia, Ontario and the rest of Canada. Résumé : Nous analysons l’évolution de la pauvreté au Québec et au Canada de 1996 à 2005 ainsi que les effets des principaux impôts et transferts aux particuliers sur cette pauvreté. Cette analyse complète les évaluations habituelles de la pauvreté faites par Statistique Canada, l’Institut de la statistique du Québec et le ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale du Québec. Des tests de robustesse sont effectués pour traiter du problème important du choix du seuil et de l’indice de pauvreté. Les résultats montrent que le classement des provinces canadiennes en termes de pauvreté absolue et relative dépend du seuil et de l’indice de pauvreté retenus. Nos méthodes préférées d’évaluation et de comparaison de la pauvreté indiquent que le Québec n’affiche en général pas plus de pauvreté absolue ou relative que les autres provinces, et que la pauvreté au Québec est statistiquement et robustement inférieure à celle de la Colombie-Britannique, de l’Ontario et du reste du Canada.

Suggested Citation

  • Bibi, Sami & Duclos, Jean-Yves, 2010. "Y a-t-il plus de pauvreté au Québec qu’au Canada?," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 86(3), pages 277-318, septembre.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:0036
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-764, July.
    2. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    3. Foster, James E. & Shorrocks, Anthony F., 1988. "Inequality and poverty orderings," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 654-661, March.
    4. Sami Bibi & Jean-Yves Duclos, 2009. "L'effet des taxes et des transferts sur la pauvreté au Québec et au Canada," Cahiers de recherche 0924, CIRPEE.
    5. Foster, James E, 1998. "Absolute versus Relative Poverty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 335-341, May.
    6. Kevin Milligan, 2008. "The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(s1), pages 79-94, November.
    7. Jean-Yves Duclos & Paul Makdissi, 2004. "Restricted and Unrestricted Dominance for Welfare, Inequality, and Poverty Orderings," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 6(1), pages 145-164, February.
    8. Foster, James E & Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1988. "Poverty Orderings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(1), pages 173-177, January.
    9. Sen, Amartya K, 1976. "Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(2), pages 219-231, March.
    10. Clark, Stephen & Hemming, Richard & Ulph, David, 1981. "On Indices for the Measurement of Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(362), pages 515-526, June.
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