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Contagion des opinions et fonctionnement des marchés financiers


  • André Orléan


[eng] Contagion of opinions in financial markets . . Many practitioners have underlined the role played by contagion processes in the generation not only of speculative bubbles but also of excess volatility. The following text shows the truth of such a point of view. Our idea is that, at the origin of interpersonal influences, we find the rational use of the information conveyed by prices. When the investors' confidence in the prevailing methods of fundamental evaluation is too low, the process of interaction becomes non-ergodic and gives rise to speculative bubbles. The model we use to demonstrate this result is very close to the Ising model. [fre] Contagion des opinions et fonctionnement des marchés financiers. . De nombreux praticiens de la finance ont souligné le rôle joué par les phénomènes de contagion, non seulement dans la formation des bulles, mais également dans l'existence d'une volatilité excessive des cours. Le présent texte démontre la pertinence de ce point de vue. Dans un premier temps, on souligne que l'utilisation rationnelle du prix, par l'ensemble des opérateurs, comme source complémentaire d'informations, est à la base même des phénomènes de contagion. Dans un second temps, on étudie cette dynamique d'interactions. On démontre que si les opérateurs ont une trop faible confiance dans les méthodes d'évaluation fondamentale, le processus d'interaction est non ergodique et donne naissance à des bulles spéculatives.

Suggested Citation

  • André Orléan, 1992. "Contagion des opinions et fonctionnement des marchés financiers," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 43(4), pages 685-698.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1992_num_43_4_409384

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. repec:hrv:faseco:33077905 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. De Long, J Bradford & Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers & Robert J. Waldmann, 1990. "Noise Trader Risk in Financial Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(4), pages 703-738, August.
    3. Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H, 1990. "The Noise Trader Approach to Finance," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 19-33, Spring.
    4. Shiller, Robert J, 1981. "Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 421-436, June.
    5. Robert J. Shiller, 1987. "Investor Behavior in the 1987-10 Stock Market Crash: Survey Evidence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 853, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    6. Topol, Richard, 1991. "Bubbles and Volatility of Stock Prices: Effect of Mimetic Contagion," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(407), pages 786-800, July.
    7. Grossman, Sanford J, 1976. "On the Efficiency of Competitive Stock Markets Where Trades Have Diverse Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 573-585, May.
    8. Robert J. Shiller, 1987. "Investor Behavior in the October 1987 Stock Market Crash: Survey Evidence," NBER Working Papers 2446, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. French, Kenneth R. & Roll, Richard, 1986. "Stock return variances : The arrival of information and the reaction of traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 5-26, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Irène Hors, 1995. "Des modèles de transition de phase en économie ?," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 46(3), pages 817-826.
    2. Bronka Rzepkowski, 2001. "Heterogeneous Expectations, Currency Options and the Euro / Dollar Exchange Rate," Working Papers 2001-03, CEPII research center.

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