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Determinants of Rural Poverty in Pakistan: A Micro Study


  • Shahnawaz Malik

    (Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.)


Using micro survey data obtained from a Punjab village we study a large number of rural-specific and household-specific variables besides landholding, in an attempt to determine their role in raising levels of living of rural masses. We investigated the reasons as to how some of the landless households managed to escape poverty whereas some cultivating households failed to do so. The main factors responsible for this outcome were found to be favourable/unfavourable distribution by size of landholding, household size, educational attainment, dependency ratio, participation rates, female-male ratio, and age of the household head. The landless households escaping poverty, however, remained in a low-income category. Whereas our analysis highlighted the importance of institutional setting for a better distribution of assets and access to resources, at the same time it pointed to the fact that numerous non-farm activities also enable the rural households to generate incomes and thus avoid poverty.

Suggested Citation

  • Shahnawaz Malik, 1996. "Determinants of Rural Poverty in Pakistan: A Micro Study," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(2), pages 171-187.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:35:y:1996:i:2:p:171-187

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Guisinger, Stephen & Hicks, Norman L., 1978. "Long-term trends in income distribution in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 6(11-12), pages 1271-1280.
    2. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    3. Gaiha, Raghav & Kazmi, N A, 1981. "Aspects of Poverty in Rural India," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 17(2-3), pages 74-112.
    4. Anand, Sudhir, 1977. "Aspects of Poverty in Malaysia," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 23(1), pages 1-16, March.
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    1. repec:spr:soinre:v:134:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s11205-016-1419-x is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Biyase, Mduduzi, 2018. "Assessing the impact of social grants on household welfare using morning after simulation and PSM approach," MPRA Paper 84477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Farah Said & Tareena Musaddiq & Mahreen Mahmud, 2011. "Macro level Determinants of Poverty: Investigation Through Poverty Mapping of Districts of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 895-911.
    4. Safana, Shaheen & Masood, Sarwar & Muhammad, Waqas & Amir, Aslam, 2012. "Economic Analysis of Earnings in Pakistan: A Case of Sargodha District," MPRA Paper 41923, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Masood Sarwar Awan & Zakir Hussain, 2007. "Returns to Education and Gender Differentials in Wages in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 49-68, Jul-Dec.
    6. Biyase, Mduduzi & Zwane, Talent, 2017. "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of poverty and household welfare in South Africa," MPRA Paper 77085, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Toseef Azid & Shahnawaz Malik, 2000. "Impact of Village-specific, Household-specific, and Technological Variables on Poverty in Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 793-806.
    8. Salman Syed Ali & Sayyid Tahir, 1999. "Dynamics of Growth, Poverty, and Inequality in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 837-858.
    9. Amara Amjad Hashmi & Maqbool H. Sial & Maaida Hussain Hashmi, 2008. "Trends and Determinants of Rural Poverty: A Logistic Regression Analysis of Selected Districts of Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 909-923.
    10. Gustavo AnrĂ­quez, 2007. "Long-Term Rural Demographic Trends," Working Papers 07-19, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    11. Usman Qadir & Muhammad Ali Kemal & Hasan Mohammad Mohsin, 2000. "Impact of Trade Reforms on Poverty," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1127-1137.

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