IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Conditioning Information and Variance Bounds on Pricing Kernels


  • Geert Bekaert


Gallant, Hansen, and Tauchen (1990) show how to use conditioning information optimally to construct a sharper unconditional variance bound (the GHT bound) on pricing kernels. The literature predominantly resorts to a simple but suboptimal procedure that scales returns with predictive instruments and computes standard bounds using the original and scaled returns. This article provides a formal bridge between the two approaches. We propose an optimally scaled bound that coincides with the GHT bound when the first and second conditional moments are known. When these moments are misspecified, our optimally scaled bound yields a valid lower bound for the standard deviation of pricing kernels, whereas the GHT bound does not. We illustrate the behavior of the bounds using a number of linear and nonlinear models for consumption growth and bond and stock returns. We also illustrate how the optimally scaled bound can be used as a diagnostic for the specification of the first two conditional moments of asset returns. Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Geert Bekaert, 2004. "Conditioning Information and Variance Bounds on Pricing Kernels," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(2), pages 339-378.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:17:y:2004:i:2:p:339-378

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bekaert, Geert & Hodrick, Robert J, 1992. " Characterizing Predictable Components in Excess Returns on Equity and Foreign Exchange Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 467-509, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:17:y:2004:i:2:p:339-378. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.