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Effects of Prototype and Exemplar Fit on Brand Extension Evaluations: A Two-Process Contingency Model


  • Huifang Mao
  • H. Shanker Krishnan


The brand extension literature suggests that consumers will favorably evaluate a brand extension when (a) it has high fit with the brand and (b) the brand has positive evaluations. We suggest that when a brand operates in multiple product domains, extension evaluations are more complex than have been conceptualized, and favorable consumer responses may result even in the absence of the above two conditions. Our two-process contingency model proposes two dimensions of fit (brand prototype fit and product exemplar fit) and two evaluative processes (top-down and parallel attitude transfer) that drive extension evaluations in different ways, depending on the level of cognitive resources. Three empirical studies found consistent support for the model. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..

Suggested Citation

  • Huifang Mao & H. Shanker Krishnan, 2006. "Effects of Prototype and Exemplar Fit on Brand Extension Evaluations: A Two-Process Contingency Model," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 41-49, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jconrs:v:33:y:2006:i:1:p:41-49
    DOI: 10.1086/504134

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    Cited by:

    1. Ahn, SooKyoung & Kim, HeaJung & Forney, Judith A., 2009. "Co-marketing alliances between heterogeneous industries: Examining perceived match-up effects in product, brand and alliance levels," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 477-485.
    2. Judy Ma & Dongling Huang & M. Kumar & Andrei Strijnev, 2015. "The impact of supplier bargaining power on the advertising costs of movie sequels," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 39(1), pages 43-64, February.
    3. Timucin Ozcan & Kunter Gunasti, 2019. "How associations between products and numbers in brand names affect consumer attitudes: introducing multi-context numbers," Journal of Brand Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(2), pages 176-194, March.
    4. Ganesh Pillai, Rajani & Bindroo, Vishal, 2014. "The moderating roles of perceived complementarity and substitutability on the perceived manufacturing difficulty–extension attitude relationship," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(7), pages 1353-1359.
    5. Chien, P. Monica & Cornwell, T. Bettina & Pappu, Ravi, 2011. "Sponsorship portfolio as a brand-image creation strategy," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 142-149, February.
    6. Kevin Lane Keller, 2016. "Reflections on customer-based brand equity: perspectives, progress, and priorities," AMS Review, Springer;Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 6(1), pages 1-16, June.
    7. Xenia Raufeisen & Linda Wulf & Sören Köcher & Ulya Faupel & Hartmut H. Holzmüller, 2019. "Spillover effects in marketing: integrating core research domains," AMS Review, Springer;Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 9(3), pages 249-267, December.
    8. Jeffrey R. Parker & Donald R. Lehmann & Kevin Lane Keller & Martin G. Schleicher, 2018. "Building a multi-category brand: when should distant brand extensions be introduced?," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 300-316, March.
    9. Paul W. Miniard & Rama K. Jayanti & Cecilia M. O. Alvarez & Peter R. Dickson, 2018. "What brand extensions need to fully benefit from their parental heritage," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Springer, vol. 46(5), pages 948-963, September.
    10. Adina Bărbulescu Robinson & Kapil R. Tuli & Ajay K. Kohli, 2015. "Does Brand Licensing Increase a Licensor's Shareholder Value?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(6), pages 1436-1455, June.
    11. Iyer, Pramod & Davari, Arezoo & Mukherjee, Amaradri, 2018. "Investigating the effectiveness of retailers’ mobile applications in determining customer satisfaction and repatronage intentions? A congruency perspective," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 235-243.
    12. Hubert, Marco & Florack, Arnd & Gattringer, Rafael & Eberhardt, Tim & Enkel, Ellen & Kenning, Peter, 2017. "Flag up! – Flagship products as important drivers of perceived brand innovativeness," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 154-163.
    13. Liu, J., 2008. "Brand and automaticity," Other publications TiSEM dcbcb1b7-2089-429d-bdc1-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. Yu-Shan Athena Chen & Lien-Ti Bei, 2019. "Free the brand: How a logo frame influences the potentiality of brand extensions," Journal of Brand Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(4), pages 349-364, July.

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