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Off-Farm Work Decisions of Farm Couples: Estimating Structural Simultaneous Equations with Ordered Categorical Dependent Variables


  • Ayal Kimhi
  • Myoung-jae Lee


We estimate a full system of structural farm and off-farm labor supply equations of farm couples as a set of simultaneous equations with categorical dependent variables. In a first step, the reduced form is estimated by ordered probit with unknown thresholds. Then, the identified structural coefficients are recovered from the reduced-form coefficients through minimum distance estimation. Using census data from Israel, we find that for men, a one-hour increase in farm labor supply causes a one-hour decrease in off-farm labor supply, but not for women. This could not have been found without estimating structural coefficients. Copyright 1996, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Ayal Kimhi & Myoung-jae Lee, 1996. "Off-Farm Work Decisions of Farm Couples: Estimating Structural Simultaneous Equations with Ordered Categorical Dependent Variables," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 687-698.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:78:y:1996:i:3:p:687-698

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Susumu Imai & Neelam Jain & Andrew Ching, 2009. "Bayesian Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Choice Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(6), pages 1865-1899, November.
    2. Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. "Numerical Methods in Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262100711, January.
    3. Michel Normandin & Pascal St-Amour, 1998. "Substitution, risk aversion, taste shocks and equity premia," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(3), pages 265-281.
    4. Victor Aguirregabiria & Pedro Mira, 2002. "Swapping the Nested Fixed Point Algorithm: A Class of Estimators for Discrete Markov Decision Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(4), pages 1519-1543, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paolisso, Michael J. & Hallman, Kelly & Haddad, Lawrence James & Regmi, Shibesh, 2001. "Does cash crop adoption detract from childcare provision?," FCND discussion papers 109, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Aurélie Darpeix & Céline Bignebat & Philippe Perrier-Cornet, 2014. "Demand for Seasonal Wage Labour in Agriculture: What Does Family Farming Hide?," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(1), pages 257-272, January.
    3. Bjornsen, Hild-Marte, 1999. "Off-farm labour decisions of Norwegian farm Households," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa025, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Nikolaj Malchow-Møller & Michael Svarer, 2005. "Wage - labour activities by agricultural households in Nicaragua," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(7), pages 1221-1246.
    5. Ayal Kimhi, 2004. "Family Composition and Off-Farm Participation Decisions in Israeli Farm Households," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(2), pages 502-512.
    6. Athanasios P. Papadopoulos & Gregory T. Papanikos, 2005. "The determinants of vinegrowers employment and policy implications: the case of a Greek island," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(1), pages 61-72, January.
    7. Woldehanna, Tassew & Lansink, Alfons Oude & Peerlings, Jack, 2000. "Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 163-171, March.
    8. Catherine Benjamin & Ayal Kimhi, 2006. "Farm work, off-farm work, and hired farm labour: estimating a discrete-choice model of French farm couples' labour decisions," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 149-171, June.
    9. Eduardo Ramírez & William Foster, 2003. "Análisis de la Oferta de Mano de Obra Familiar en la Agricultura Campesina," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 40(119), pages 89-110.
    10. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 1999. "Human Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 369-406.
    11. Laszlo, Sonia, 2008. "Education, Labor Supply, and Market Development in Rural Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2421-2439, November.
    12. repec:oup:revage:v:30:y:2008:i:2:p:311-332. is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Ayal Kimhi, 2003. "Family Composition and Off-Farm Participation Decisions in Israeli Farm Households," Labor and Demography 0307001, EconWPA.

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