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The Impact of REI on Italian Households' Income: A Micro and Macro Evaluation


  • Massimo Baldini
  • Elizabeth Jane Casabianca
  • Elena Giarda
  • Lorenzo Lusignoli


In 2017, Italy's government introduced a minimum income scheme, the Reddito di Inclusione (Income Inclusion Programme, REI). REI is a selective, means-tested and conditional scheme that aims at supporting incomes of those most in need. Its structure was recently modified to reach a larger percentage of the poor. In this paper, we simulate the impact of REI on household incomes and evaluate its effects with respect to poverty alleviation and inequality reduction. The analysis is based on the 2015 wave of IT-SILC, the Italian module of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. Our results show that, under full take-up, REI will reach 45.8% of households in absolute poverty and 22.5% of those in relative poverty. It has a mild impact on the incidence of both types of poverty, while it is more successful in reducing their intensity. We also estimate that REI would contribute to raising GDP by 0.14 percentage points through an increase in private consumption.

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  • Massimo Baldini & Elizabeth Jane Casabianca & Elena Giarda & Lorenzo Lusignoli, 2018. "The Impact of REI on Italian Households' Income: A Micro and Macro Evaluation," Politica economica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 103-134.
  • Handle: RePEc:mul:je8794:doi:10.1429/90853:y:2018:i:2:p:103-134

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Damon Jones & Ioana Marinescu, 2022. "The Labor Market Impacts of Universal and Permanent Cash Transfers: Evidence from the Alaska Permanent Fund," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 315-340, May.
    2. Virginia Hernanz & Franck Malherbet & Michele Pellizzari, 2004. "Take-Up of Welfare Benefits in OECD Countries: A Review of the Evidence," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 17, OECD Publishing.
    3. Immervoll, Herwig & Jenkins, Stephen P. & Königs, Sebastian, 2015. "Are Recipients of Social Assistance 'Benefit Dependent'? Concepts, Measurement and Results for Selected Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 8786, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Stefano Boscolo & Giovanni Gallo, 2021. "The Struggle of Being Poor and Claimant: Evidence on the Non-Take-Up of Social Policies in Italy," Center for the Analysis of Public Policies (CAPP) 0174, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi".
    2. Massimo Baldini & Giulia Mancini & Giovanni Vecchi, 2018. "No country for young people. Poverty and Age in Italy, 1948-2018," Department of Economics 0128, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    3. Nicola Curci & Giuseppe Grasso & Pasquale Recchia & Marco Savegnago, 2020. "Anti-poverty measures in Italy: a microsimulation analysis," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1298, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Giovanni Gallo & Michele Raitano, 2020. "SOS incomes: Simulated effects of COVID-19 and emergency benefits on individual and household income distribution in Italy," Working Papers 566, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    5. Ugo Colombino & Nizamul Islam, 2018. "Basic Income and Flat Tax: The Italian Scenario," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 19(03), pages 20-29, October.
    6. Sarah Marchal & Linus Sióland, 2019. "A safety net that holds? Tracking minimum income protection adequacy for the elderly, the working and the non-working of active age," Working Papers 1909, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    7. repec:ces:ifofor:v:19:y:2018:i:3:p:20-29 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Stefano Boscolo, 2022. "The contribution of tax-benefit instruments to income redistribution in Italy," ECONOMIA PUBBLICA, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2022(2), pages 181-231.
    9. Stefano Boscolo, 2019. "The Contribution of Proportional Taxes and Tax-Free Cash Benefits to Income Redistribution over the Period 2005-2018: Evidence from Italy," Department of Economics 0152, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".

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    More about this item


    Microsimulation; Minimum Income Schemes; Poverty; Italy.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs


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