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Rediscounting under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard




Freeman (1999) proposes a model in which discount window lending and open market operations have different effects. This is important because in most of the literature, these policies are indistinguishable. However, Freeman's argument that the central bank should absorb losses associated with default to provide risk-sharing stands in stark contrast to the concern that central banks should limit their exposure to credit risk. We extend Freeman's model by introducing moral hazard. With moral hazard, the central bank should avoid absorbing losses and Freeman's argument breaks down. However, we show that policies resembling discount window lending and open market operations can still be distinguished in this new framework. The optimal policy is for the central bank to make a restricted number of creditors compete for funds. By restricting the number of agents, the central bank can limit the moral hazard problem. By making them compete with each other, the central bank can exploit market information that reveals the state of the economy.
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Suggested Citation

  • James T.E. Chapman & Antoine Martin, 2013. "Rediscounting under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(4), pages 651-674, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:45:y:2013:i:4:p:651-674

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James T. E. Chapman, 2008. "Policy Coordination in an International Payment System," Staff Working Papers 08-17, Bank of Canada.
    2. Fujiki, Hiroshi, 2003. "A model of the Federal Reserve Act under the international gold standard system," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1333-1350, September.
    3. Edward J. Green, 1999. "Money and debt in the structure of payments," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 13-29.
    4. Brian Madigan & William R. Nelson, 2002. "Proposed revision to the Federal Reserve's discount window lending programs," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 313-319.
    5. Guido Tabellini & Scott Freeman, 1998. "The optimality of nominal contracts," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 11(3), pages 545-562.
    6. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "The Payments System, Liquidity, and Rediscounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1126-1138, December.
    7. David C. Mills, Jr, 2004. "Mechanism Design and the Role of Enforcement in Freeman's Model of Payments," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 7(1), pages 219-236, january.
    8. Martin, Antoine, 2004. "Optimal pricing of intraday liquidity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 401-424, March.
    9. Ruilin Zhou, 2000. "Understanding intraday credit in large-value payment systems," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q III, pages 29-44.
    10. Stacy Panigay Coleman, 2002. "The evolution of the Federal Reserve's intraday credit policies," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 67-84.
    11. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet & Bruno M. Parigi, 2004. "The Lender of Last Resort: A Twenty-First Century Approach," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(6), pages 1085-1115, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hiroshi Fujiki, 2013. "Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 504-536, December.
    2. Gu, Chao & Guzman, Mark & Haslag, Joseph, 2011. "Production, hidden action, and the payment system," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 172-182, March.
    3. ANTOINE MARTIN & JAMES McANDREWS, 2010. "Should There Be Intraday Money Markets?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 110-122, January.
    4. Jobst, Clemens & Bignon, Vincent, 2017. "Economic crises and the eligiblity for the lender of last resort: evidence from 19th century France," Working Paper Series 2027, European Central Bank.
    5. James Chapman & Jonathan Chiu & Miguel Molico, 2011. "Central bank haircut policy," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 319-348, August.
    6. James Chapman & Jonathan Chiu & Miguel Molico, 2013. "A Model of Tiered Settlement Networks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(2-3), pages 327-347, March.
    7. Bignon, Vincent & Jobst, Clemens, 2017. "Economic Crises and the Eligibility for the Lender of Last Resort: Evidence from Nineteenth Century France," CEPR Discussion Papers 11737, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Hajime Tomura, 2014. "Payment Instruments and Collateral in the Interbank Payment System," UTokyo Price Project Working Paper Series 032, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics.
    9. Fujiki, Hiroshi, 2014. "Institutional designs to alleviate liquidity shortages in a two-country model," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 32-46.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies


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