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Bűnök és büntetések - tanulságok a közgazdaságtani irodalomból
[Crimes and punishments: Insights from economic literature]

Author

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  • Isztin, Péter

    ()

Abstract

A tanulmány a bűnözés és büntetés közgazdaságtani irodalmát foglalja össze, ezen keresztül mutatva be a különböző büntetőpolitikai lépések várható hatásait. Gary Becker közgazdaságtani alapmodellje - amely abból indul ki, hogy a bűnelkövetők racionális döntéshozók, s az elkövetésről a bűncselekmény hasznai és költségei alapján döntenek - többek között azt jelzi előre, hogy a magasabb piaci bérűek kevesebb bűncselekményt követnek el, illetve a bűnelkövetések száma függ a büntetések mértékétől és valószínűségétől. Az empirikus tanulmányok, amelyek nagyrészt alátámasztják az alapmodell állítását, a következő megállapításokra jutottak: az Egyesült Államokban túl hosszúak a börtönbüntetések, szigorításuk helyett érdemesebb a bűnüldözésre fordítható erőforrásokat más megoldásokra - például a rendőrség létszámának növelésére - költeni. Európában - az amerikaihoz képest jóval enyhébb büntetési tételek miatt - komoly elrettentő hatása lehet a büntetési tételek növelésének is. Érdemes azonban az ígéretes helyettesítő vagy kiegészítő beavatkozásokkal kísérletezni: házi őrizettel, közvetlen pénzbeli ösztönzőkkel, kognitív viselkedésterápiával, az oktatási rendszer fejlesztésével - és ezen belül a hátrányosabb helyzetűek emberi tőkéjébe való beruházással -, pénzbüntetéssel, valamint a bűnözéshez kapcsolódó termékek (például az alkohol) nagyobb mértékű megadóztatásával.* Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) kód: J24, K14, K42.

Suggested Citation

  • Isztin, Péter, 2018. "Bűnök és büntetések - tanulságok a közgazdaságtani irodalomból [Crimes and punishments: Insights from economic literature]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 287-302.
  • Handle: RePEc:ksa:szemle:1758
    DOI: 10.18414/KSZ.2018.3.287
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. David Friedman, 1999. "Why Not Hang Them All: The Virtues of Inefficient Punishment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(S6), pages 259-269, December.
    2. Lawrence Katz & Steven D. Levitt & Ellen Shustorovich, 2003. "Prison Conditions, Capital Punishment, and Deterrence," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 318-343, August.
    3. Steven D. Levitt, 2004. "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 163-190, Winter.
    4. Steven D. Levitt, 2002. "Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effects of Police on Crime: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1244-1250, September.
    5. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters, in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Steven D. Levitt, 1996. "The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(2), pages 319-351.
    7. Gary S. Becker & Casey B. Mulligan, 1997. "The Endogenous Determination of Time Preference," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 729-758.
    8. Luciano Andreozzi, 2004. "Rewarding Policemen Increases Crime. Another Surprising Result from the Inspection Game," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 121(1), pages 69-82, October.
    9. Gary S. Becker & George J. Stigler, 1974. "Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 1-18, January.
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    13. Edward L. Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 2000. "The Determinants of Punishment: Deterrence, Incapacitation and Vengeance," NBER Working Papers 7676, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    16. Ehrlich, Isaac, 1975. "The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 397-417, June.
    17. Ehrlich, Isaac, 1981. "On the Usefulness of Controlling Individuals: An Economic Analysis of Rehabilitation, Incapacitation, and Deterrence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 307-322, June.
    18. Brian Bell & Laura Jaitman & Stephen Machin, 2014. "Crime Deterrence: Evidence From the London 2011 Riots," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 0(576), pages 480-506, May.
    19. Edward L. Glaeser, 2013. "A World of Cities: The Causes and Consequences of Urbanization in Poorer Countries," NBER Working Papers 19745, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • K14 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Criminal Law
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

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