IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

R-Squared Measures for Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Models Using SAS


  • Recchia, Anthony


The hierarchical linear model (HLM) is the primary tool of multilevel analysis, a set of techniques for examining data with nested sources of variability. The concept of R2 from classical multiple regression analysis cannot be applied directly to HLMs without certain undesirable results. However, multilevel analogues have been formulated. The goal here is to demonstrate a SAS macro that will calculate estimates of these quantities for a two-level HLM that has been fit with SAS's linear mixed modeling procedure, PROC MIXED.

Suggested Citation

  • Recchia, Anthony, 2010. "R-Squared Measures for Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Models Using SAS," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 32(c02).
  • Handle: RePEc:jss:jstsof:v:032:c02

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Mathieu Bunel & Jean-Pascal Guironnet, 2011. "Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests," Working Papers halshs-00868198, HAL.
    2. Michal Biron & Hilla Peretz & Keren Turgeman-Lupo, 2020. "Trait Optimism and Work from Home Adjustment in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Considering the Mediating Role of Situational Optimism and the Moderating Role of Cultural Optimism," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(22), pages 1-1, November.
    3. Jean-Pascal Guironnet & Matthieu Bunel, 2011. "Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests: A Multilevel Modeling Approach Applied to the Case of France," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201118, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    4. Lazarova, Mila & Peretz, Hilla & Fried, Yitzhak, 2017. "Locals know best? Subsidiary HR autonomy and subsidiary performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 83-96.
    5. Covin, Jeffrey G. & Garrett, Robert P. & Kuratko, Donald F. & Shepherd, Dean A., 2020. "Short leash or long leash? Parenting style, initial strategic clarity, and the development of venture learning proficiency," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 35(4).
    6. Ansar, Atif & Flyvbjerg, Bent & Budzier, Alexander & Lunn, Daniel, 2014. "Should we build more large dams? The actual costs of hydropower megaproject development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 43-56.
    7. Awojobi, Omotola & Jenkins, Glenn P., 2016. "Managing the cost overrun risks of hydroelectric dams: An application of reference class forecasting techniques," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 19-32.
    8. Burroway, Rebekah & Hargrove, Andrew, 2018. "Education is the antidote: Individual- and community-level effects of maternal education on child immunizations in Nigeria," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 213(C), pages 63-71.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jss:jstsof:v:032:c02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.