IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jlands/v7y2018i2p45-d140451.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Sustainability of Smallholder Livelihoods in the Ecuadorian Highlands: A Comparison of Agroforestry and Conventional Agriculture Systems in the Indigenous Territory of Kayambi People

Author

Listed:
  • Raúl Córdova

    (Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences; University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland)

  • Nicholas J. Hogarth

    (Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences; University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland)

  • Markku Kanninen

    (Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences; University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland)

Abstract

Smallholder farming constitutes an important but marginalized sector, responsible for most of the world’s agricultural production. This has a significant influence in the land use/cover change process and agrobiodiversity conservation, especially in mountainous regions of the developing world. Thus, the maintenance of sustainable smallholder farming systems represents a key condition for sustainable land management and to safeguard the livelihoods of millions of rural households. This study uses a combination of biophysical and socioeconomic data based on household interviews to compare 30 highland agroforestry systems and 30 conventional agriculture systems, to determine which system provides better conditions to support sustainable livelihoods for smallholder farmers. The interview data is based mainly on the perceptions of Kayambi indigenous farmers who use these farming systems to support their livelihoods. Independent-Samples t Test and descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data from 60 farms. The results indicate that agroforestry systems contain greater agrobiodiversity; more diversified livelihoods; better land tenure security and household income; more diversified irrigation sources and less dependency on rainfall than conventional systems. These findings highlight the role of agroforestry systems in supporting sustainable livelihoods of smallholder farmers in mountainous areas.

Suggested Citation

  • Raúl Córdova & Nicholas J. Hogarth & Markku Kanninen, 2018. "Sustainability of Smallholder Livelihoods in the Ecuadorian Highlands: A Comparison of Agroforestry and Conventional Agriculture Systems in the Indigenous Territory of Kayambi People," Land, MDPI, vol. 7(2), pages 1-31, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jlands:v:7:y:2018:i:2:p:45-:d:140451
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/7/2/45/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/7/2/45/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. repec:gam:jlands:v:5:y:2016:i:2:p:10:d:68661 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Frank Ellis, 2000. "The Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 289-302, May.
    3. Gershon Feder & Tongroj Onchan, 1987. "Land Ownership Security and Farm Investment in Thailand," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 69(2), pages 311-320.
    4. Graeub, Benjamin E. & Chappell, M. Jahi & Wittman, Hannah & Ledermann, Samuel & Kerr, Rachel Bezner & Gemmill-Herren, Barbara, 2016. "The State of Family Farms in the World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 1-15.
    5. Karl S. Zimmerer & Steven J. Vanek, 2016. "Toward the Integrated Framework Analysis of Linkages among Agrobiodiversity, Livelihood Diversification, Ecological Systems, and Sustainability amid Global Change," Land, MDPI, vol. 5(2), pages 1-28, April.
    6. Agostina Costantino, 2014. "Land Grabbing in Latin America: Another Natural Resource Curse?," Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, Centre for Agrarian Research and Education for South, vol. 3(1), pages 17-43, April.
    7. Lowder, Sarah K. & Skoet, Jakob & Raney, Terri, 2016. "The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 16-29.
    8. Jacqueline M. Vadjunec & Claudia Radel & B. L. Turner II, 2016. "Introduction: The Continued Importance of Smallholders Today," Land, MDPI, vol. 5(4), pages 1-12, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Carla Marchant Santiago & Paulina Rodríguez Díaz & Luis Morales-Salinas & Liliana Paz Betancourt & Luis Ortega Fernández, 2021. "Practices and Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Variability in Family Farming. An Analysis of Cases of Rural Communities in the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Chile," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 11(11), pages 1-22, November.
    2. Claudia de Brito Quadros Gonçalves & Madalena Maria Schlindwein & Gabrielli do Carmo Martinelli, 2021. "Agroforestry Systems: A Systematic Review Focusing on Traditional Indigenous Practices, Food and Nutrition Security, Economic Viability, and the Role of Women," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(20), pages 1-20, October.
    3. Beatrice Nöldeke & Etti Winter & Yves Laumonier & Trifosa Simamora, 2021. "Simulating Agroforestry Adoption in Rural Indonesia: The Potential of Trees on Farms for Livelihoods and Environment," Land, MDPI, vol. 10(4), pages 1-31, April.
    4. Shahzad Ahmad & Zhang Caihong & E. M. B. P. Ekanayake, 2021. "Livelihood Improvement through Agroforestry Compared to Conventional Farming System: Evidence from Northern Irrigated Plain, Pakistan," Land, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-18, June.
    5. Raúl Córdova & Nicholas J. Hogarth & Markku Kanninen, 2019. "Mountain Farming Systems’ Exposure and Sensitivity to Climate Change and Variability: Agroforestry and Conventional Agriculture Systems Compared in Ecuador’s Indigenous Territory of Kayambi People," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(9), pages 1-30, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Anne Jerneck, 2018. "What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(3), pages 1-20, February.
    2. Bryceson, Deborah Fahy, 2019. "Gender and generational patterns of African deagrarianization: Evolving labour and land allocation in smallholder peasant household farming, 1980–2015," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 60-72.
    3. Clay, Nathan & Zimmerer, Karl S., 2020. "Who is resilient in Africa’s Green Revolution? Sustainable intensification and Climate Smart Agriculture in Rwanda," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C).
    4. Luis Bauluz & Yajna Govind & Filip Novokmet, 2020. "Global Land Inequality," Working Papers halshs-03022318, HAL.
    5. Luis Bauluz & Yajna Govind & Filip Novokmet, 2020. "Global Land Inequality," PSE Working Papers halshs-03022318, HAL.
    6. Raúl Córdova & Nicholas J. Hogarth & Markku Kanninen, 2019. "Mountain Farming Systems’ Exposure and Sensitivity to Climate Change and Variability: Agroforestry and Conventional Agriculture Systems Compared in Ecuador’s Indigenous Territory of Kayambi People," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(9), pages 1-30, May.
    7. Aliaa Dirani & Gumataw Kifle Abebe & Rachel A. Bahn & Giuliano Martiniello & Isam Bashour, 2021. "Exploring climate change adaptation practices and household food security in the Middle Eastern context: a case of small family farms in Central Bekaa, Lebanon," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 13(4), pages 1029-1047, August.
    8. Guiomar, N. & Godinho, S. & Pinto-Correia, T. & Almeida, M. & Bartolini, F. & Bezák, P. & Biró, M. & Bjørkhaug, H. & Bojnec, Š. & Brunori, G. & Corazzin, M. & Czekaj, M. & Davidova, S. & Kania, J. & K, 2018. "Typology and distribution of small farms in Europe: Towards a better picture," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 784-798.
    9. Cellarier, Laurent L., 2021. "Is landownership a ladder out of poverty?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 146(C).
    10. Katherine A. Snyder & Emmanuel Sulle & Deodatus A. Massay & Anselmi Petro & Paschal Qamara & Dan Brockington, 2020. "“Modern” farming and the transformation of livelihoods in rural Tanzania," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer;The Agriculture, Food, & Human Values Society (AFHVS), vol. 37(1), pages 33-46, March.
    11. Agarwal, Bina, 2018. "Can group farms outperform individual family farms? Empirical insights from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 57-73.
    12. Lowder, Sarah K. & Sánchez, Marco V. & Bertini, Raffaele, 2021. "Which farms feed the world and has farmland become more concentrated?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    13. Ognjen Žurovec & Pål Olav Vedeld, 2019. "Rural Livelihoods and Climate Change Adaptation in Laggard Transitional Economies: A Case from Bosnia and Herzegovina," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(21), pages 1-27, November.
    14. Adam Pawlewicz, 2020. "Change of Price Premiums Trend for Organic Food Products: The Example of the Polish Egg Market," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 10(2), pages 1-22, February.
    15. Araujo, Danielle F. & Costa, Raimundo N. & Mateos, Luciano, 2019. "Pros and cons of furrow irrigation on smallholdings in northeast Brazil," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 221(C), pages 25-33.
    16. Biggeri, Mario & Burchi, Francesco & Ciani, Federico & Herrmann, Raoul, 2018. "Linking small-scale farmers to the durum wheat value chain in Ethiopia: Assessing the effects on production and wellbeing," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 77-91.
    17. Deininger, Klaus & Xia, Fang, 2018. "Assessing the long-term performance of large-scale land transfers: Challenges and opportunities in Malawi’s estate sector," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 281-296.
    18. Nicod, T. & Bathfield, B. & Bosc, P.-M. & Promkhambut, A. & Duangta, K. & Chambon, B., 2020. "Households' livelihood strategies facing market uncertainties: How did Thai farmers adapt to a rubber price drop?," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 182(C).
    19. Luis Bauluz & Yajna Govind & Filip Novokmet, 2020. "Global Land Inequality," Working Papers halshs-03022360, HAL.
    20. Colnago, P. & Rossing, W.A.H. & Dogliotti, S., 2021. "Closing sustainability gaps on family farms: Combining on-farm co-innovation and model-based explorations," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jlands:v:7:y:2018:i:2:p:45-:d:140451. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.