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Modeling Predictors of Medication Waste Reduction Intention in Algeria: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior


  • Kamel Mouloudj

    (Department of Commercial Sciences, College of Economic, University Yahia Fares of Medea, Medea 26000, Algeria)

  • Anuli Njoku

    (Department of Public Health, College of Health and Human Services, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, USA)

  • Dachel Martínez Asanza

    (Department of Scientific-Technical Results Management, National School of Public Health (ENSAP), Havana Medical Sciences University, Havana 10800, Cuba)

  • Ahmed Chemseddine Bouarar

    (Department of Commercial Sciences, College of Economic, University Yahia Fares of Medea, Medea 26000, Algeria)

  • Marian A. Evans

    (Department of Public Health, College of Health and Human Services, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, USA)

  • Smail Mouloudj

    (Department of Commercial Sciences, College of Economic, University Yahia Fares of Medea, Medea 26000, Algeria)

  • Achouak Bouarar

    (Department of Medicine, College of Medical, University Saad Dahleb Blida 1, Blida 09000, Algeria)


COVID-19 caused an increase in the demand for medications, which led to an increase in pharmaceutical waste and there is no doubt that this contributes to environmental pollution. Hence, it became necessary to search for how to protect and improve the environment by encouraging the behavior of medication waste reduction. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the factors affecting intentions to reduce medication waste. Considering this, we develop an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework by incorporating the constructs of moral obligation, environmental awareness, and medication waste risk perception. Using the convenience sampling method and based on a self-administered questionnaire, a total of 225 usable responses were collected in five Algerian cities. The results showed that positive attitudes (β = 0.316, p < 0.001), moral obligation (β = 0.291, p < 0.001), environmental awareness (β = 0.227, p < 0.001), perceived behavior control (PBC) (β = 0.151, p = 0.001), greater perceived risks (β = 0.127, p < 0.001), and subjective norm (β = 0.096, p < 0.05) significantly and positively influence the medication waste minimization intention. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that the extended TPB model explained 73.40% of the intention variance. In conclusion, we have explored the intentions, and there may be a gap between intent and actual behavior. Therefore, we recommend future studies to examine the factors affecting the actual behavior of medication waste reduction and to investigate environmental ethics and religious commitment as predictors of waste reduction intentions.

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  • Kamel Mouloudj & Anuli Njoku & Dachel Martínez Asanza & Ahmed Chemseddine Bouarar & Marian A. Evans & Smail Mouloudj & Achouak Bouarar, 2023. "Modeling Predictors of Medication Waste Reduction Intention in Algeria: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 20(16), pages 1-18, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:20:y:2023:i:16:p:6584-:d:1218352

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    References listed on IDEAS

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