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How to Improve an Offshore Wind Station


  • João Paulo N. Torres

    (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
    Academia Militar/CINAMIL, Av. Conde Castro Guimarães, 2720-113 Amadora, Portugal)

  • Ana Sofia De Jesus

    (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal)

  • Ricardo A. Marques Lameirinhas

    (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal)


The ocean is approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and has a lot of resources available. Nowadays, human beings are looking for renewable ways to obtain energy. Offshore power can be obtained in several different ways. Offshore wind power is the most used renewable offshore energy. Since 2017, offshore wind power has a competitive price in comparison with conventional sources. In the 2010s, offshore wind power grew at over 30% per year. Although it has remained less than one percent of the overall world electricity generation, offshore wind power becomes quite relevant on the northern European countries from 2020. However, there are other ways to obtain energy offshore such as using tides and the sun. These types of farms are expensive and difficult to install and, therefore, we propose a combination of several renewable energies in one farm. The main ambition of this work is to try to reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the two types of offshore renewable energies by creating a structure capable of supporting the two types of turbines. To accomplish it, a theoretical study will be made, a brief state-of-the-art will be presented, the chosen items and the environment chosen for installation will be referred to, a prototype will be simulated using a multiphysics software and, finally, the results and conclusions will be presented, based on a Portuguese case study. How piezoelectric materials can enter offshore farms to increase efficiency is also referred to. The project proved to be possible of producing approximately 12.5 GWh of energy annually, more or less enough to supply 10 thousand homes. However, the installation of the piezoelectric materials did not prove to be viable as it is an expensive technology and does not produce a large amount of energy.

Suggested Citation

  • João Paulo N. Torres & Ana Sofia De Jesus & Ricardo A. Marques Lameirinhas, 2022. "How to Improve an Offshore Wind Station," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(13), pages 1-20, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:15:y:2022:i:13:p:4873-:d:854528

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lande-Sudall, D. & Stallard, T. & Stansby, P., 2019. "Co-located deployment of offshore wind turbines with tidal stream turbine arrays for improved cost of electricity generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 492-503.
    2. Nachtane, M. & Tarfaoui, M. & Goda, I. & Rouway, M., 2020. "A review on the technologies, design considerations and numerical models of tidal current turbines," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 1274-1288.
    3. Navid Majdi Nasab & Jeff Kilby & Leila Bakhtiaryfard, 2020. "The Potential for Integration of Wind and Tidal Power in New Zealand," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(5), pages 1-21, February.
    4. Ricardo A. Marques Lameirinhas & João Paulo N. Torres & João P. de Melo Cunha, 2022. "A Photovoltaic Technology Review: History, Fundamentals and Applications," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(5), pages 1-44, March.
    5. Charles Newbold & Mohammad Akrami & Mahdieh Dibaj, 2021. "Scenarios, Financial Viability and Pathways of Localized Hybrid Energy Generation Systems around the United Kingdom," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(18), pages 1-27, September.
    6. Joana Engana Carmo & João Paulo Neto Torres & Gonçalo Cruz & Ricardo A. Marques Lameirinhas, 2021. "Effect of the Inclusion of Photovoltaic Solar Panels in the Autonomy of UAV Time of Flight," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-19, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ran Tao & Jingpeng Yue & Zhenlin Huang & Ranran An & Zou Li & Junfeng Liu, 2022. "A High-Gain DC Side Converter with a Ripple-Free Input Current for Offshore Wind Energy Systems," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(18), pages 1-16, September.
    2. Artur S. Bartosik, 2023. "Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow: New Advances," Energies, MDPI, vol. 16(14), pages 1-7, July.

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