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Marine Exhaust Gas Treatment Systems for Compliance with the IMO 2020 Global Sulfur Cap and Tier III NO x Limits: A Review

Author

Listed:
  • Theodoros C. Zannis

    (Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Section, Hellenic Naval Academy, 18539 Piraeus, Greece)

  • John S. Katsanis

    (Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Section, Hellenic Naval Academy, 18539 Piraeus, Greece)

  • Georgios P. Christopoulos

    (Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Navy Fleet, Salamis Naval Base, 18901 Salamis, Greece)

  • Elias A. Yfantis

    (Marine and Offshore Science, Technology and Engineering Centre (MOSTEC), Cyprus Marine and Maritime Institute (CMMI), P.O. Box 40930, Larnaca 6023, Cyprus)

  • Roussos G. Papagiannakis

    (Thermodynamics and Propulsion Systems Section, Hellenic Air Force Academy, 13671 Dekelia, Greece)

  • Efthimios G. Pariotis

    (Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Section, Hellenic Naval Academy, 18539 Piraeus, Greece)

  • Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos

    (Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH), Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, 50200 Ptolemais, Greece)

  • Constantine D. Rakopoulos

    (Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, 15780 Athens, Greece)

  • Athanasios G. Vallis

    (Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Navy Fleet, Salamis Naval Base, 18901 Salamis, Greece)

Abstract

In the present work, the contemporary exhaust gas treatment systems (EGTS) used for SO x , PM, and NO x emission mitigation from shipping are reviewed. Specifically, after-treatment technologies such as wet scrubbers with seawater and freshwater solution with NaOH, hybrid wet scrubbers, wet scrubbers integrated in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) installations, dry scrubbers, inert gas wet scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are analyzed. The operational principles and the construction specifications, the performance characteristics and the investment and operation of the reviewed shipping EGTS are thoroughly elaborated. The SCR technology is comparatively evaluated with alternative techniques such as LNG, internal engine modifications (IEM), direct water injection (DWI) and humid air motor (HAM) to assess the individual NO x emission reduction potential of each technology. Detailed real data for the time several cargo vessels spent in shipyards for seawater scrubber installation, and actual data for the purchase cost and the installation cost of seawater scrubbers in shipyards are demonstrated. From the examination of the constructional, operational, environmental and economic parameters of the examined EGTS, it can be concluded that the most effective SO x emission abatement system is the closed-loop wet scrubbers with NaOH solution which can practically eliminate ship SO x emissions, whereas the most effective NO x emission mitigation system is the SCR which cannot only offer compliance of a vessel with the IMO Tier III limits but can also practically eliminate ship NO x emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Theodoros C. Zannis & John S. Katsanis & Georgios P. Christopoulos & Elias A. Yfantis & Roussos G. Papagiannakis & Efthimios G. Pariotis & Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos & Constantine D. Rakopoulos & Athanas, 2022. "Marine Exhaust Gas Treatment Systems for Compliance with the IMO 2020 Global Sulfur Cap and Tier III NO x Limits: A Review," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(10), pages 1-49, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:15:y:2022:i:10:p:3638-:d:816703
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rakopoulos, Dimitrios C. & Rakopoulos, Constantine D. & Kosmadakis, George M. & Giakoumis, Evangelos G., 2020. "Exergy assessment of combustion and EGR and load effects in DI diesel engine using comprehensive two-zone modeling," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 202(C).
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    3. Rakopoulos, Constantine D. & Rakopoulos, Dimitrios C. & Kosmadakis, George M. & Papagiannakis, Roussos G., 2019. "Experimental comparative assessment of butanol or ethanol diesel-fuel extenders impact on combustion features, cyclic irregularity, and regulated emissions balance in heavy-duty diesel engine," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 1145-1157.
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    5. Rakopoulos, Constantine D. & Rakopoulos, Dimitrios C. & Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. & Andritsakis, Eleftherios C. & Mavropoulos, George C., 2022. "Exergy evaluation of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and residual gas effects in variable compression ratio spark-ignition engine using quasi-dimensional combustion modeling," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 244(PB).
    6. Rakopoulos, Constantine D. & Rakopoulos, Dimitrios C. & Mavropoulos, George C. & Kosmadakis, George M., 2018. "Investigating the EGR rate and temperature impact on diesel engine combustion and emissions under various injection timings and loads by comprehensive two-zone modeling," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 990-1014.
    7. Gu, Yewen & Wallace, Stein W., 2017. "Scrubber: a potentially overestimated compliance method for the Emission Control Areas - The importance of involving a ship's sailing pattern in the evaluation," Discussion Papers 2017/13, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
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