IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jagris/v5y2015i4p1172-1182d59578.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective

Author

Listed:
  • Naveed Aslam

    () (Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Peter C. Wynn

    () (Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

Abstract

Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to diseases. The Pakistani population depends heavily on milk for nutritional needs and 10% of household income is spent on milk. This commodity requires continuous monitoring and care from its site of production by smallholder dairy producers through to urban consumers along tradition milk marketing chains. Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with mycotoxins, which, after ingestion, are transferred into milk. Aflatoxins can contribute to the causation of liver cancers, immune system disorders, and growth-related issues in children. Moreover, deaths in both humans and animals have also been reported after ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food. Studies have shown contamination of food and feed ingredients with mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins. This review places the dairy industry into context, summarizes how milk and milk products are contaminated with aflatoxins, and discusses the present legislative regulation of milk quality implemented in Pakistan. There is a need to eliminate fungus-susceptible animal feed ingredients, which are the source of mycotoxins so prevalent in the milk marketed to the consumer in Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Naveed Aslam & Peter C. Wynn, 2015. "Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(4), pages 1-11, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:5:y:2015:i:4:p:1172-1182:d:59578
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/5/4/1172/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/5/4/1172/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. ., 2013. "Agriculture and the public distribution system," Chapters,in: The Political Economy of Iraq, chapter 7, pages 110-136 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. -, 2001. "New technologies in agriculture," Sede Subregional de la CEPAL para el Caribe (Estudios e Investigaciones) 27483, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    3. repec:aph:ajpbhl:2001:91:1:93-98_5 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Unknown, 2013. "Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade," Agricultural Outlook Forum 2013 148044, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Outlook Forum.
    5. Unknown, 2013. "2013 Annual Agricultural Outlook," Staff Paper Series 144064, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    6. Food and Agriculture Organization, 2013. "The State of Food and Agriculture, 2013," Working Papers id:5511, eSocialSciences.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    aflatoxins; AFM1; AFB1; milk marketing chains; hepatocellular carcinoma;

    JEL classification:

    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
    • Q10 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - General
    • Q11 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
    • Q14 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Finance
    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:5:y:2015:i:4:p:1172-1182:d:59578. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.