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High Costs For Co-Occurrence of Neck/Shoulder and Low Back Disorders in Sweden

  • Johan Liwing


    (Karolinska Institutet, Dep Public Health, Div Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm, Sweden)

  • Christina Wiktorin


    (Karolinska Institutet, Dep Public Health, Div Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm, Sweden)

  • Wilhelmus JA Grooten


    (Karolinska Institutet, Dep Public Health, Div Occupational and Environmental Health, Norrbacka, Stockholm, Sweden & Department Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society; Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge)

  • Teresia Nyman


    (Karolinska Institutet, Dep Public Health, Div Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm, Sweden)

  • Magnus Svartengren


    (Karolinska Institutet, Dep Public Health, Div Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm, Sweden)

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    Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyse if the localization of unspecific back disorders influenced the yearly direct and indirect costs during a five year period; 1996 to 2001. Methods: Based on the location and the recurrence of neck/shoulder disorders (NSD) and low back disorders (LBD) disorders, 2057 individuals were grouped into six different disorder groups and one control group without disorders. Direct costs were calculated using self-reported data on drug use, health care utilization and ergonomic interventions. Indirect costs were calculated using yearly collected individual register data on personal income and government compensation for sickness absence. The costs for each of the six groups with NSD and/or LBD were estimated by subtracting the costs in the control group from the costs in each disorder group with NSD/LBD. Adjustments were made for age, gender, and other diseases. Results: The indirect costs were ten times higher than the direct costs. The total average individual costs for the subjects with co-occurrence NSD and LBD was $6.000 for the year 2001. This was three to four times higher than for those with solely NSD or solely LBD. The largest increase in costs between 1996 and 2001 was seen in this group. Conclusion: Further studies are required to identify which characteristics in work environment or in life style that causes recurrent and concurrent NSD and LBD.

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    Article provided by Ege University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences in its journal Ege Academic Review.

    Volume (Year): 9 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 1017-1033

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    Handle: RePEc:ege:journl:v:9:y:2009:i:3:p:1017-1033
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    1. Koopmanschap, Marc A. & Rutten, Frans F. H. & van Ineveld, B. Martin & van Roijen, Leona, 1995. "The friction cost method for measuring indirect costs of disease," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 171-189, June.
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