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How to determine the X in RPI-X regulation: a user's guide


  • Bernstein, Jeffrey I.
  • Sappington, David E. M.


We examine the appropriate choice of an X factor in RPI-X (or price cap) regulation. After providing a basic guideline, we explain how to modify this guideline to account for: (1) limited spans of regulatory control; (2) anticipated structural changes in the regulated industry, such as a strengthening of competitive forces; (3) major impacts of the pricing decisions of the regulated firm on the economy-wide rate of price inflation; and (4) imperfect competition outside of the regulated sector.

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  • Bernstein, Jeffrey I. & Sappington, David E. M., 2000. "How to determine the X in RPI-X regulation: a user's guide," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 63-68, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:telpol:v:24:y:2000:i:1:p:63-68

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Cronin, Francis J. & Colleran, Elisabeth K. & Herbert, Paul L. & Lewitzky, Steven, 1993. "Telecommunications and growth : The contribution of telecommunications infrastructure investment to aggregate and sectoral productivity," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(9), pages 677-690, December.
    3. Weller, Dennis, 1999. "Auctions for universal service obligations," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 645-674, October.
    4. anonymous, 1982. "Communication," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(3), pages 337-337, March.
    5. Peha, Jon M., 1999. "Tradable universal service obligations," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 363-374, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. David Hawdon & Lester C. Hunt & Paul Levine & Neil Rickman, 2007. "Optimal sliding scale regulation: an application to regional electricity distribution in England and Wales," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(3), pages 458-485, July.
    2. Evangelinos, Christos, 2013. "Infrastrukturpreise: Eine normativ-theoretische Analyse," Discussion Papers 1/2013, Technische Universität Dresden, "Friedrich List" Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences, Institute of Transport and Economics.
    3. Andreas Kuhlmann, 2006. "What is the X-Factor in the German Electricity Industry?," ifo Working Paper Series 34, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    4. Martín Rossi, 2015. "Using Labor Productivity Change Estimates as an Input for X-Factors in Price-Cap Regulation," Working Papers 118, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Feb 2015.
    5. Defilippi, Enzo, 2015. "X-factor regulation in a developing country: The case of Lima's airport," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 16-22.
    6. Resende, Marcelo, 2002. "Relative efficiency measurement and prospects for yardstick competition in Brazilian electricity distribution," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 637-647, June.
    7. Zimmerman, Paul R. & Flaherty, Susan M.V., 2007. "Location monopolies and prison phone rates," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 261-278, May.
    8. J. Alejandro Tirado, 2005. "The Mexican fixed national long distance market: evidence of monopoly power," EconoQuantum, Revista de Economia y Negocios, Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Economico Administrativas, Departamento de Metodos Cuantitativos y Maestria en Economia., vol. 1(2), pages 103-123, Enero-Jun.


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