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Geothermal energy in Turkey: the sustainable future

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  • Kaygusuz, Kamil
  • Kaygusuz, Abdullah

Abstract

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, geothermal energy and other renewable energy sources are becoming attractive solution for clean and sustainable energy future for Turkey. Turkey is the seventh richest country in the world in geothermal energy potential. The main uses of geothermal energy are space heating and domestic hot water supply, greenhouse heating, industrial processes, heat pumps and electricity generation. The district heating system applications started with large-scale, city-based geothermal district heating systems in Turkey, whereas the geothermal district heating centre and distribution networks have been designed according to the geothermal district heating system (GDHS) parameters. This constitutes an important advantage of GDHS investments in the country in terms of the technical and economical aspects. In Turkey, approximately 61,000 residences are currently heated by geothermal fluids. A total of 665 MWt is utilized for space heating of residential, public and private property, and 565,000 m2 of greenhouses. The proven geothermal heat capacity, according to data from existing geothermal wells and natural discharges, is 3132 MWt. Present applications have shown that geothermal energy is clean and much cheaper compared to the other fossil and renewable energy sources for Turkey.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaygusuz, Kamil & Kaygusuz, Abdullah, 2004. "Geothermal energy in Turkey: the sustainable future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 545-563, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:8:y:2004:i:6:p:545-563
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2002. "Environmental impacts of energy utilisation and renewable energy policies in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 689-698, June.
    2. Barbier, Enrico, 2002. "Geothermal energy technology and current status: an overview," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 3-65.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kotcioğlu, İ., 2011. "Clean and sustainable energy policies in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 5111-5119.
    2. Bilen, K. & Ozyurt, O. & BakIrcI, K. & KarslI, S. & Erdogan, S. & YIlmaz, M. & ComaklI, O., 2008. "Energy production, consumption, and environmental pollution for sustainable development: A case study in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 1529-1561, August.
    3. AkpInar, Adem & Kömürcü, Murat I. & Önsoy, HIzIr & Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2008. "Status of geothermal energy amongst Turkey's energy sources," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 1148-1161, May.
    4. Keleş, S. & Bilgen, S., 2012. "Renewable energy sources in Turkey for climate change mitigation and energy sustainability," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 5199-5206.
    5. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2009. "A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(9), pages 2535-2543, December.
    6. Ozgur, M. Arif, 2008. "Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2345-2356.
    7. Benli, Hüseyin, 2013. "Potential of renewable energy in electrical energy production and sustainable energy development of Turkey: Performance and policies," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 33-46.
    8. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:252-271 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Toklu, E. & Güney, M.S. & IsIk, M. & ComaklI, O. & Kaygusuz, K., 2010. "Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 1172-1186, May.
    10. Yüksel, Ibrahim, 2008. "Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 802-812.
    11. Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2009. "Energy and environmental issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions for sustainable development in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 253-270, January.
    12. Yuksel, Ibrahim & Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2011. "Renewable energy sources for clean and sustainable energy policies in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(8), pages 4132-4144.
    13. Ozyurt, O., 2010. "Energy issues and renewables for sustainable development in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 2976-2985, December.
    14. Kose, Ramazan, 2007. "Geothermal energy potential for power generation in Turkey: A case study in Simav, Kutahya," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 497-511, April.
    15. Yuksel, Ibrahim, 2012. "Global warming and environmental benefits of hydroelectric for sustainable energy in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 3816-3825.
    16. Etemoglu, A.B. & Can, M., 2007. "Classification of geothermal resources in Turkey by exergy analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(7), pages 1596-1606, September.
    17. Bilgen, Selçuk & Keles, Sedat & Kaygusuz, Abdullah & SarI, Ahmet & Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2008. "Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development: A case study in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 372-396, February.
    18. Sivasakthivel, T. & Murugesan, K. & Sahoo, P.K., 2015. "Study of technical, economical and environmental viability of ground source heat pump system for Himalayan cities of India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 452-462.
    19. Kumbaroglu, Gürkan & Madlener, Reinhard & Demirel, Mustafa, 2008. "A real options evaluation model for the diffusion prospects of new renewable power generation technologies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1882-1908, July.
    20. Geng, Yong & Sarkis, Joseph & Wang, Xinbei & Zhao, Hongyan & Zhong, Yongguang, 2013. "Regional application of ground source heat pump in China: A case of Shenyang," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 95-102.
    21. Yüksel, Ibrahim, 2010. "Energy production and sustainable energy policies in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1469-1476.
    22. Kömürcü, Murat İhsan & Akpınar, Adem, 2009. "Importance of geothermal energy and its environmental effects in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1611-1615.
    23. Li, Kewen & Bian, Huiyuan & Liu, Changwei & Zhang, Danfeng & Yang, Yanan, 2015. "Comparison of geothermal with solar and wind power generation systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1464-1474.
    24. Tüfekçi, Nesrin & Lütfi Süzen, M. & Güleç, Nilgün, 2010. "GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 246-261.

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