IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/mulfin/v27y2014icp114-129.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The German humpback: Internationalization and foreign exchange hedging

Author

Listed:
  • Aabo, Tom
  • Ploeen, Rasmus

Abstract

Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm's internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We do not find support that diversification or production facilities abroad drive our results. Our paper is the first empirical paper to document an inverse U-shape relationship between internationalization and foreign exchange hedging.

Suggested Citation

  • Aabo, Tom & Ploeen, Rasmus, 2014. "The German humpback: Internationalization and foreign exchange hedging," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 114-129.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:mulfin:v:27:y:2014:i:c:p:114-129
    DOI: 10.1016/j.mulfin.2014.05.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1042444X14000127
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Linda Allen & Christos Pantzalis, 1996. "Valuation of the operating Flexibility of Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(4), pages 633-653, December.
    2. Christopher C. Géczy & Bernadette A. Minton & Catherine M. Schrand, 2007. "Taking a View: Corporate Speculation, Governance, and Compensation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(5), pages 2405-2443, October.
    3. Kim, Young Sang & Mathur, Ike & Nam, Jouahn, 2006. "Is operational hedging a substitute for or a complement to financial hedging?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 834-853, September.
    4. Aggarwal, Raj & Harper, Joel T., 2010. "Foreign exchange exposure of "domestic" corporations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(8), pages 1619-1636, December.
    5. Hodder, James E., 1982. "Exposure to exchange-rate movements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3-4), pages 375-386, November.
    6. Morck, Randall & Yeung, Bernard, 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 165-187, April.
    7. Christos Pantzalis & Betty J Simkins & Paul A Laux, 2001. "Operational Hedges and the Foreign Exchange Exposure of U.S. Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(4), pages 793-812, December.
    8. Subramanian Rangan, 1998. "Do Multinationals Operate Flexibly? Theory and Evidence," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 217-237, June.
    9. Jan-Erik Vahlne & Inge Ivarsson, 2014. "The globalization of Swedish MNEs: Empirical evidence and theoretical explanations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 45(3), pages 227-247, April.
    10. Matti Keloharju & Mervi Niskanen, 2001. "Why Do Firms Raise Foreign Currency Denominated Debt? Evidence from Finland," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(4), pages 481-496, December.
    11. Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
    12. Jongmoo Jay Choi & Anita Mehra Prasad, 1995. "Exchange Risk Sensitivity and Its Determinants: A Firm and Industry Analysis of U.S. Multinationals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(3), Fall.
    13. repec:fth:michin:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gordon M. Bodnar, 2007. "The exchange rate exposure puzzle," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(9), pages 642-666, August.
    15. Agmon, Tamir & Lessard, Donald R, 1977. "Investor Recognition of Corporate International Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1049-1055, September.
    16. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Brown, Gregory W. & Minton, Bernadette A., 2010. "Resolving the exposure puzzle: The many facets of exchange rate exposure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 148-173, February.
    17. Hayne E. Leland, 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1213-1243, August.
    18. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    19. Simi Kedia & Abon Mozumdar, 2003. "Foreign Currency Denominated Debt: An Empirical Examination," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(4), pages 521-546, October.
    20. Aabo, Tom & Høg, Esben & Kuhn, Jochen, 2010. "Integrated foreign exchange risk management: The role of import in medium-sized manufacturing firms," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4-5), pages 235-250, December.
    21. Tony W Tong & Jeffrey J Reuer, 2007. "Real options in multinational corporations: organizational challenges and risk implications," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(2), pages 215-230, March.
    22. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Brown, Gregory W. & Conrad, Jennifer, 2011. "The Effects of Derivatives on Firm Risk and Value," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 967-999, August.
    23. René M. Stulz, 1996. "Rethinking Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(3), pages 8-25, September.
    24. Marshall, Andrew P., 2000. "Foreign exchange risk management in UK, USA and Asia Pacific multinational companies," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 185-211, June.
    25. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    26. Karl V. Lins & Henri Servaes & Ane Tamayo, 2011. "Does Fair Value Reporting Affect Risk Management? International Survey Evidence," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 40(3), pages 525-551, September.
    27. Elliott, William B. & Huffman, Stephen P. & Makar, Stephen D., 2003. "Foreign-denominated debt and foreign currency derivatives: complements or substitutes in hedging foreign currency risk?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 123-139, April.
    28. Lisa K. Meulbroek, 2002. "A Senior Manager'S Guide To Integrated Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(4), pages 56-70, January.
    29. Allayannis, George & Weston, James P, 2001. "The Use of Foreign Currency Derivatives and Firm Market Value," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 243-276.
    30. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gregory W. Brown & Frank R. Fehle, 2009. "International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 185-206, March.
    31. George, Thomas J. & Hwang, Chuan-Yang, 2010. "A resolution of the distress risk and leverage puzzles in the cross section of stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 56-79, April.
    32. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, September.
    33. Dunning, John H, 1973. "The Determinants of International Production," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 289-336, November.
    34. Mello, Antonio S. & Parsons, John E. & Triantis, Alexander J., 1995. "An integrated model of multinational flexibility and financial hedging," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 27-51, August.
    35. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    36. Jia He & Lilian K. Ng, 1998. "The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 733-753, April.
    37. Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1998. "1998 Wharton Survey of Financial Risk Management by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
    38. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(4), pages 391-405, December.
    39. Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
    40. Aabo, Tom & Simkins, Betty J., 2005. "Interaction between real options and financial hedging: Fact or fiction in managerial decision-making," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 353-369.
    41. Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. "Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-1354, September.
    42. Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
    43. Bruce Kogut & Nalin Kulatilaka, 1994. "Operating Flexibility, Global Manufacturing, and the Option Value of a Multinational Network," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 123-139, January.
    44. Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2003. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Issues in Model Structure," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(1), Spring.
    45. Tom Aabo, 2006. "The Importance of Corporate Foreign Debt in Managing Exchange Rate Exposures in Non‐Financial Companies," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(4), pages 633-649, September.
    46. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. "On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-284, March.
    47. Hutson, Elaine & Laing, Elaine, 2014. "Foreign exchange exposure and multinationality," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 97-113.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. S. Veeramani & Abha Shukla & Mariam Jamaleh, 2020. "Financial theories of foreign direct investment: a review of literature," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 47(2), pages 185-217, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Internationalization; Foreign exchange hedging; Diversification; Cash flow matching; Operational flexibility;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:mulfin:v:27:y:2014:i:c:p:114-129. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/mulfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.