Activist arbitrage: A study of open-ending attempts of closed-end funds
This paper documents frequent attempts by activist arbitrageurs to open-end discounted closed-end funds, particularly after the 1992 proxy reform which reduced the costs of communication among shareholders. Open-ending attempts have a substantial effect on discounts, reducing them, on average, to half of their original level. The size of the discount is a major determinant of whether a fund gets attacked. Other important factors include the costs of communication among shareholders and the governance structure of the targeted fund. Our study contributes to the understanding of the actions undertaken by arbitrageurs in financial markets beyond just pure trading.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pastor, Lubos & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2003.
"Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 642-685, June.
- Pástor, Luboš & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2002. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," CEPR Discussion Papers 3494, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Luboš Pástor & Robert F. Stambaugh, . "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," CRSP working papers 531, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Lubos Pastor & Robert F. Stambaugh, 2001. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 8462, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brickley, James A. & Schallheim, James S., 1985. "Lifting the Lid on Closed-End Investment Companies: A Case of Abnormal Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(01), pages 107-117, March.
- Martin Cherkes & Jacob Sagi & Richard Stanton, 2009. "A Liquidity-Based Theory of Closed-End Funds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 257-297, January.
- Patrick BOLTON & Ernst-Ludwig VON THADDEN, 1996.
"Blocks, Liquidity, and Corporate Control,"
Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP)
9619, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Gordon Gemmill & Dylan C. Thomas, 2002. "Noise Trading, Costly Arbitrage, and Asset Prices: Evidence from Closed-end Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2571-2594, December.
- Del Guercio, Diane & Dann, Larry Y. & Partch, M. Megan, 2003. "Governance and boards of directors in closed-end investment companies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 111-152, July.
- Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
- Battalio, Robert H. & Mendenhall, Richard R., 2005. "Earnings expectations, investor trade size, and anomalous returns around earnings announcements," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 289-319, August.
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:118:y:2003:i:1:p:107-155 is not listed on IDEAS
- Pound, John, 1988. "Proxy contests and the efficiency of shareholder oversight," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 237-265, January.
- Brauer, Greggory A., 1984. "`Open-ending' closed-end funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 491-507, December.
- Evans, William N & Oates, Wallace E & Schwab, Robert M, 1992. "Measuring Peer Group Effects: A Study of Teenage Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 966-91, October.
- Barclay, M.J. & Holderness, C.G. & Pontiff, J., 1991.
"Private Benefits form Block Ownership and Discounts on Closed-end Funds,"
91-01, Rochester, Business - Financial Research and Policy Studies.
- Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G. & Pontiff, Jeffrey, 1993. "Private benefits from block ownership and discounts on closed-end funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 263-291, June.
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:111:y:1996:i:4:p:1135-51 is not listed on IDEAS
- Heckman, James J, 1978.
"Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 931-59, July.
- James J. Heckman, 1977. "Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System," NBER Working Papers 0177, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul A. Gompers & Joy L. Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2001.
"Corporate Governance and Equity Prices,"
NBER Working Papers
8449, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucian Arye Bebchuk & John C. Coates IV & Guhan Subramanian, 2002. "The Powerful Antitakeover Force of Staggered Boards: Theory, Evidence and Policy," NBER Working Papers 8974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philip Bond & Itay Goldstein & Edward Simpson Prescott, 2010. "Market-Based Corrective Actions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(2), pages 781-820, February.
- Jonathan B. Berk & Richard Stanton, 2007. "Managerial Ability, Compensation, and the Closed-End Fund Discount," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 529-556, 04.
- Pontiff, Jeffrey, 1995. "Closed-end fund premia and returns Implications for financial market equilibrium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 341-370, March.
- Stuart L. Gillan & Laura T. Starks, 2007. "The Evolution of Shareholder Activism in the United States," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 19(1), pages 55-73.
- Pontiff, Jeffrey, 2006. "Costly arbitrage and the myth of idiosyncratic risk," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 35-52, October.
- Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2003. "The Nonparametric Identification of Treatment Effects in Duration Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1491-1517, 09.
- Pound, John, 1991. "Proxy voting and the SEC*1: Investor protection versus market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 241-285, October.
- Choi, Stephen, 2000. "Proxy Issue Proposals: Impact of the 1992 SEC Proxy Reforms," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 233-68, April.
- Charles Kahn & Andrew Winton, 1998. "Ownership Structure, Speculation, and Shareholder Intervention," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 99-129, 02.
- Greenwood, Robin & Schor, Michael, 2009. "Investor activism and takeovers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 362-375, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:95:y:2010:i:1:p:1-19. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.