The role of risk management in mergers and merger waves
We show that merger activity and particularly waves are significantly driven by risk management considerations. Increases in cash flow uncertainty encourage firms to vertically integrate and this contributes to the start of merger waves. These effects are incremental to previously identified causes of wave activity. Our risk management hypothesis is further supported by cross-sectional differences in the likelihood that a firm vertically integrates, and by the post-acquisition characteristics of vertically integrating firms. These results are consistent with the view (from the industrial organization literature) that vertical integration is an operational hedging mechanism that reduces the cost of increased uncertainty.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Carlton, Dennis W, 1979.
"Vertical Integration in Competitive Markets under Uncertainty,"
Journal of Industrial Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 189-209, March.
- D. W. Carlton, 1976. "Vertical Integration in Competitive Markets Under Uncertainty," Working papers 174, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Rhodes-Kropf, Matthew & Robinson, David T. & Viswanathan, S., 2005. "Valuation waves and merger activity: The empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 561-603, September.
- Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1997. "Industry costs of equity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 153-193, February.
- Hertzel, Michael G. & Li, Zhi & Officer, Micah S. & Rodgers, Kimberly J., 2008. "Inter-firm linkages and the wealth effects of financial distress along the supply chain," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 374-387, February.
- William Greene, 2004. "Fixed Effects and Bias Due to the Incidental Parameters Problem in the Tobit Model," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 125-147.
- Lambrecht, Bart M., 2004. "The timing and terms of mergers motivated by economies of scale," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 41-62, April.
- Penas, Maria Fabiana & Unal, Haluk, 2004. "Gains in bank mergers: Evidence from the bond markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 149-179, October.
- Christa H. S. Bouwman & Kathleen Fuller & Amrita S. Nain, 2009. "Market Valuation and Acquisition Quality: Empirical Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 633-679, February.
- Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
- Opler, Tim & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 1999.
"The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 3-46, April.
- Tim Opler & Lee Pinkowitz & Rene Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 1997. "The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings," NBER Working Papers 6234, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fee, C. Edward & Thomas, Shawn, 2004. "Sources of gains in horizontal mergers: evidence from customer, supplier, and rival firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 423-460, December.
- Kenneth R. Ahern & Jarrad Harford, 2014. "The Importance of Industry Links in Merger Waves," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(2), pages 527-576, 04.
- Joseph P. H. Fan & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2006. "On the Patterns and Wealth Effects of Vertical Mergers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(2), pages 877-902, March.
- Denis, David J & Denis, Diane K & Sarin, Atulya, 1997. " Agency Problems, Equity Ownership, and Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 135-160, March.
- Fan, Joseph P. H., 2000. "Price uncertainty and vertical integration: an examination of petrochemical firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 345-376, December.
- Billett, Matthew T & Garfinkel, Jon A, 2004. "Financial Flexibility and the Cost of External Finance for U.S. Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 827-852, October.
- Williamson, Oliver E, 1979. "Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractural Relations," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 233-261, October.
- Kim, Chang-Soo & Mauer, David C. & Sherman, Ann E., 1998. "The Determinants of Corporate Liquidity: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(03), pages 335-359, September.
- Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2003.
"Stock market driven acquisitions,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 295-311, December.
- Kristine Watson Hankins, 2011. "How Do Financial Firms Manage Risk? Unraveling the Interaction of Financial and Operational Hedging," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2197-2212, December.
- Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
- Matsusaka, John G., 1996. "Did Tough Antitrust Enforcement Cause the Diversification of American Corporations?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(02), pages 283-294, June.
- Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
- Ovtchinnikov, Alexei V., 2010. "Capital structure decisions: Evidence from deregulated industries," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 249-274, February.
- Williamson, Oliver E, 1971. "The Vertical Integration of Production: Market Failure Considerations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(2), pages 112-123, May.
- W. Kip Viscusi & Joseph E. Harrington & John M. Vernon, 2005. "Economics of Regulation and Antitrust, 4th Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 4, volume 1, number 026222075x.
- Hirshleifer, David, 1988. "Risk, Futures Pricing, and the Organization of Production in Commodity Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(6), pages 1206-1220, December.
- Anand M. Goel & Anjan V. Thakor, 2010. "Do Envious CEOs Cause Merger Waves?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(2), pages 487-517, February.
- Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992.
"Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies,"
NBER Working Papers
4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993. " Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-1658, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:101:y:2011:i:3:p:515-532. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.