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Air–rail intermodal agreements: Balancing the competition and environmental effects


  • Chiambaretto, Paul
  • Decker, Christopher


The use of air–rail intermodal agreements has expanded over recent decades. Significant benefits have been associated with such agreements for airlines, rail operators, intermodal airports and consumers. In addition, a number of environmental benefits are perceived to be associated with a modal shift from air to rail. However, these agreements could, in some circumstances, raise competition concerns and, unlike cooperation agreements between airlines, there has been a limited focus by competition authorities to date on examining their competitive effects. Uncertainty as to regulatory treatment maybe limiting the spread and scope of air–rail intermodal agreements. This paper considers the factors relevant to any competition assessment of these agreements and raises the question of whether environmental benefits should be considered as part of the assessment.

Suggested Citation

  • Chiambaretto, Paul & Decker, Christopher, 2012. "Air–rail intermodal agreements: Balancing the competition and environmental effects," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 36-40.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jaitra:v:23:y:2012:i:c:p:36-40
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2012.01.012

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Volodymyr Bilotkach & Kai Hüschelrath, 2011. "Antitrust Immunity For Airline Alliances," Journal of Competition Law and Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 335-380.
    2. Franke, Markus, 2004. "Competition between network carriers and low-cost carriers—retreat battle or breakthrough to a new level of efficiency?," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 15-21.
    3. Westin, Jonas & Kågeson, Per, 2011. "Can high speed rail offset its embedded emissions?," Working papers in Transport Economics 2011:16, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
    4. Ivaldi, Marc & Vibes, Catherine, 2005. "Intermodal and Intramodal Competition in Passenger Rail Transport," CEPR Discussion Papers 5004, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Givoni, Moshe & Banister, David, 2006. "Airline and railway integration," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 386-397, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:cbu:jrnlec:y:2017:v:4:p:161-168 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Song, Fangqing & Hess, Stephane & Dekker, Thijs, 2018. "Accounting for the impact of variety-seeking: Theory and application to HSR-air intermodality in China," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 99-111.
    3. Daniel Albalate & Germá Bel, 2015. "La experiencia internacional en alta velocidad ferroviaria," Working Papers 2015-02, FEDEA.
    4. Juan Gabriel Brida & Juan Carlos Martín & Concepción Román & Raffaele Scuderi, 2017. "Air and HST Multimodal Products. A Segmentation Analysis for Policy Makers," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 911-934, September.
    5. Román, Concepción & Martín, Juan Carlos, 2014. "Integration of HSR and air transport: Understanding passengers’ preferences," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 129-141.
    6. Jiang, Changmin & D'Alfonso, Tiziana & Wan, Yulai, 2017. "Air-rail cooperation: Partnership level, market structure and welfare implications," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 461-482.
    7. Alessandro Avenali & Tiziana D'Alfonso & Alberto Nastasi & Pierfrancesco Reverberi, 2019. "High-speed rail and air transport integration in hub-and-spoke networks. The role of airports," DIAG Technical Reports 2019-09, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    8. Avenali, Alessandro & Bracaglia, Valentina & D’Alfonso, Tiziana & Reverberi, Pierfrancesco, 2017. "Benefits and costs of vertical agreements between airlines and high-speed rail operators," Working Papers 17_5, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica.
    9. Li, Zhi-Chun & Sheng, Dian, 2016. "Forecasting passenger travel demand for air and high-speed rail integration service: A case study of Beijing-Guangzhou corridor, China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 397-410.
    10. Chiambaretto, Paul & Baudelaire, Clément & Lavril, Thibaut, 2013. "Measuring the willingness-to-pay of air-rail intermodal passengers," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 50-54.
    11. Fabian Gabelberger, 2017. "Konkurrenz und Kooperation von Hochgeschwindigkeitsverkehr auf der Schiene und Flugverkehr. Intermodales Reisen in Europa und Perspektiven für Österreich," WIFO Monatsberichte (monthly reports), WIFO, vol. 90(3), pages 193-204, March.
    12. Dobruszkes, Frédéric & Dehon, Catherine & Givoni, Moshe, 2014. "Does European high-speed rail affect the current level of air services? An EU-wide analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 461-475.
    13. Li, Xiaoyu & Jiang, Changmin & Wang, Kun & Ma, Jun, 2018. "Determinants of partnership levels in air-rail cooperation," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 88-96.


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