Changes in out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Vietnam and its impact on equity in payments, 1992-2002
Background Economic reforms in Vietnam initiated in the late 1980s included deregulation of the health system resulting in extensive changes in health care delivery, access, and financing. One aspect of the health sector reform was the introduction of user fees at both public and private health facilities, which was in stark contrast to the former socialized system of free medical care. Subsequently, health insurance and free health care cards for the poor were introduced to mitigate the barriers to seeking care and financial burden imposed by out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments as a result of the user fees.Objective To examine the determinants of seeking care and OOP payments as well as the relationship between individual out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures and household ability to pay (ATP) during 1992-2002.Data The data are drawn from 1992-93 and 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standard Surveys (VLSS) and 2002 Vietnam Household and Living Standards Survey (VHLSS).Methods We use a two-part model where the first part is a probit model that estimates the probability that an individual will seek treatment. The second part is a truncated non-linear regression model that uses ordinary least-squares and fixed effects methods to estimate the determinants of OOP payments that are measured both as absolute as well as relative expenditures. Based on the analysis, we examine the relationship between the predicted shares of individual OOP health payments and household's ATP as well as selected socioeconomic characteristics.Results Our results indicate that payments increased with increasing ATP, but the consequent financial burden (payment share) decreased with increasing ATP, indicating a regressive system during the first two periods. However, share of payments increased with ATP, indicating a progressive system by 2002. When comparing across years, we find horizontal inequities in all the years that worsened between 1992 and 1998 but improved by 2002.Conclusion The regressivity in payments noted during 1992 and 1998 might be because the rich could avail of health insurance more than those at lower incomes and as a consequence, were able to use the healthcare system more effectively without paying a high OOP payment. In contrast, the poor either incurred higher OOP payments or were discouraged from seeking treatments until their ailment became serious. This inequality becomes exacerbated in 1998 when insurance take-up rates were not high, but the impact of privatization and deregulation was already occurring. By 2002, insurance take-up rates were much higher, and poverty alleviation policies (e.g., free health insurance and health fund membership targeted for the poor) were instituted, which may have resulted in a less regressive system.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chad Meyerhoefer & David Sahn & Stephen Younger, 2007. "The joint demand for health care, leisure, and commodities: Implications for health care finance and access in Vietnam," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1475-1500.
- Roy, Kakoli & Howard, David Hill, 2007. "Equity in out-of-pocket payments for hospital care: Evidence from India," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 297-307, February.
- Matthew Jowett, 2003. "Do informal risk sharing networks crowd out public voluntary health insurance? Evidence from Vietnam," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(10), pages 1153-1161.
- Wagstaff, Adam, 2007. "The economic consequences of health shocks: Evidence from Vietnam," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 82-100, January.
- Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2003. "Catastrophe and impoverishment in paying for health care: with applications to Vietnam 1993-1998," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(11), pages 921-933.
- Eddy van Doorslaer & Owen O'Donnell & Ravindra P. Rannan-Eliya & Aparnaa Somanathan & Shiva Raj Adhikari & Charu C. Garg & Deni Harbianto & Alejandro N. Herrin & Mohammed Nazmul Huq & Shamsia Ibragimo, 2007. "Catastrophic payments for health care in Asia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(11), pages 1159-1184.
- Ardeshir Sepehri & Sisira Sarma & Wayne Simpson, 2006. "Does non-profit health insurance reduce financial burden? Evidence from the Vietnam living standards survey panel," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(6), pages 603-616.
- Winnie Yip & Peter Berman, 2001. "Targeted health insurance in a low income country and its impact on access and equity in access: Egypt's school health insurance," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(3), pages 207-220.
- Adam Wagstaff, 2002. "Reflections on and alternatives to WHO's fairness of financial contribution index," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(2), pages 103-115.
- Matthew Jowett & Anil Deolalikar & Peter Martinsson, 2004. "Health insurance and treatment seeking behaviour: evidence from a low-income country," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(9), pages 845-857.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:hepoli:v:88:y:2008:i:1:p:38-48. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)or ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.