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Using the Delphi method to engage stakeholders: A comparison of two studies


  • Geist, Monica R.


Involving stakeholders can greatly impact evaluation results. The Delphi method, a consensus-building tool, is a promising process to promote and encourage involvement from all stakeholders during the evaluation framing process. The Delphi method removes geographic challenges and time boundaries allowing all stakeholders to participate. The Delphi method uses a series of surveys interspersed with controlled feedback designed to gather information and build consensus without requiring face-to-face meetings. Two different formats of the Delphi method, a paper-and-pencil, postal-mail version and a web-based, real-time computer version are compared in this study. Both versions of the Delphi were administered to a non-profit community based organization as part of framing an evaluation. Participation rates were better with the paper-pencil version. The quantity and quality of data collected were comparable in both versions.

Suggested Citation

  • Geist, Monica R., 2010. "Using the Delphi method to engage stakeholders: A comparison of two studies," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 147-154, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:epplan:v:33:y:2010:i:2:p:147-154

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edith de Leeuw, 2001. "Reducing Missing Data in Surveys: An Overview of Methods," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 147-160, May.
    2. Norman Dalkey & Olaf Helmer, 1963. "An Experimental Application of the DELPHI Method to the Use of Experts," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(3), pages 458-467, April.
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    1. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:188-205 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Aengenheyster, Stefan & Cuhls, Kerstin & Gerhold, Lars & Heiskanen-Schüttler, Maria & Huck, Jana & Muszynska, Monika, 2017. "Real-Time Delphi in practice — A comparative analysis of existing software-based tools," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 15-27.
    3. Santos, Antonio Bob & Mendonca, Sandro, 2016. "A Delphi Approach to Boost an Open Innovation Policy," MPRA Paper 73007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Alyami, Saleh. H. & Rezgui, Yacine & Kwan, Alan, 2013. "Developing sustainable building assessment scheme for Saudi Arabia: Delphi consultation approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 43-54.
    5. Pätäri, Satu & Tuppura, Anni & Toppinen, Anne & Korhonen, Jaana, 2016. "Global sustainability megaforces in shaping the future of the European pulp and paper industry towards a bioeconomy," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 38-46.
    6. Aldossary, Naief A. & Rezgui, Yacine & Kwan, Alan, 2015. "Consensus-based low carbon domestic design framework for sustainable homes," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 417-432.
    7. Chao, Ching-Cheng & Yu, Po-Cheng, 2013. "Quantitative evaluation model of air cargo competitiveness and comparative analysis of major Asia-Pacific airports," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 318-326.
    8. Peeraer, Jef & Van Petegem, Peter, 2015. "Integration or transformation? Looking in the future of Information and Communication Technology in education in Vietnam," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 47-56.
    9. Förster, Bernadette & von der Gracht, Heiko, 2014. "Assessing Delphi panel composition for strategic foresight — A comparison of panels based on company-internal and external participants," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 215-229.
    10. Spickermann, Alexander & Zimmermann, Martin & von der Gracht, Heiko A., 2014. "Surface- and deep-level diversity in panel selection — Exploring diversity effects on response behaviour in foresight," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 105-120.
    11. Spickermann, Alexander & Grienitz, Volker & von der Gracht, Heiko A., 2014. "Heading towards a multimodal city of the future?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 201-221.


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