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The use of physical indicators for the monitoring of energy intensity developments in the Netherlands, 1980–1995

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  • Farla, Jacco C.M
  • Blok, Kornelis

Abstract

Decreasing the energy intensity of processes and activities is an important means by which to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in the near future. Monitoring of the developments in energy intensity is necessary in order to check whether policies to decrease energy intensity have the desired effect. Value-based indicators have been used in many such monitoring studies. It has been suggested only recently that physical indicators might lead to a better understanding of energy intensity developments. In this paper we aim at developing meaningful physical energy intensity indicators for all sectors of the Dutch economy and to study the sectoral energy intensity developments for the period 1980–1995 by means of these indicators. It turned out to be possible to develop aggregate activity indicators on a physical basis for most of the subsectors. Physical and value-based energy intensity indicators yielded substantial differences in the energy intensity developments calculated. On average, the annual decrease in energy intensity for the period 1980–1995 was 1.4%, calculated on the basis of physical energy intensity indicators, and 1.6% on the basis of economic indicators. The methodology based on physical indicators turned out to be suitable for monitoring energy intensity developments. However, more data are required and thorough analysis of the energy consumption per subsector is necessary to improve this type of analysis based on physical activity indicators.

Suggested Citation

  • Farla, Jacco C.M & Blok, Kornelis, 2000. "The use of physical indicators for the monitoring of energy intensity developments in the Netherlands, 1980–1995," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 609-638.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:25:y:2000:i:7:p:609-638
    DOI: 10.1016/S0360-5442(00)00006-2
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    4. Norman, Jonathan B., 2017. "Measuring improvements in industrial energy efficiency: A decomposition analysis applied to the UK," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 1144-1151.
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    6. Ramirez, C.A. & Blok, K. & Neelis, M. & Patel, M., 2006. "Adding apples and oranges: The monitoring of energy efficiency in the Dutch food industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1720-1735, September.
    7. Neelis, Maarten & Ramirez-Ramirez, Andrea & Patel, Martin & Farla, Jacco & Boonekamp, Piet & Blok, Kornelis, 2007. "Energy efficiency developments in the Dutch energy-intensive manufacturing industry, 1980-2003," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6112-6131, December.
    8. Salta, Myrsine & Polatidis, Heracles & Haralambopoulos, Dias, 2009. "Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 90-111.
    9. Ang, B.W. & Xu, X.Y., 2013. "Tracking industrial energy efficiency trends using index decomposition analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1014-1021.
    10. Ringel, Marc & Schlomann, Barbara & Krail, Michael & Rohde, Clemens, 2016. "Towards a green economy in Germany? The role of energy efficiency policies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1293-1303.
    11. Cahill, Caiman J. & Ó Gallachóir, Brian P., 2012. "Combining physical and economic output data to analyse energy and CO2 emissions trends in industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 422-429.
    12. Cullen, Jonathan M. & Allwood, Julian M., 2010. "The efficient use of energy: Tracing the global flow of energy from fuel to service," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 75-81, January.
    13. Neelis, M.L. & Pouwelse, J.W., 2008. "Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2719-2733, July.
    14. Beisheim, Benedikt & Krämer, Stefan & Engell, Sebastian, 2020. "Hierarchical aggregation of energy performance indicators in continuous production processes," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 264(C).
    15. Schenk, Niels J. & Moll, Henri C., 2007. "The use of physical indicators for industrial energy demand scenarios," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2-3), pages 521-535, August.
    16. Ramírez, C.A. & Patel, M. & Blok, K., 2006. "How much energy to process one pound of meat? A comparison of energy use and specific energy consumption in the meat industry of four European countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 2047-2063.
    17. Saygin, D. & Worrell, E. & Tam, C. & Trudeau, N. & Gielen, D.J. & Weiss, M. & Patel, M.K., 2012. "Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1094-1106.
    18. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2016. "Reducing CO2 emissions in China's manufacturing industry: Evidence from nonparametric additive regression models," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 161-173.
    19. Ang, B.W., 2006. "Monitoring changes in economy-wide energy efficiency: From energy-GDP ratio to composite efficiency index," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 574-582, March.
    20. Hammond, G.P. & Norman, J.B., 2012. "Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon emissions from UK manufacturing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 220-227.
    21. Li, Yi & Sun, Linyan & Feng, Taiwen & Zhu, Chunyan, 2013. "How to reduce energy intensity in China: A regional comparison perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 513-522.
    22. Diakoulaki, D. & Mavrotas, G. & Orkopoulos, D. & Papayannakis, L., 2006. "A bottom-up decomposition analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions in Greece," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 2638-2651.
    23. Wang, Ning & Wen, Zongguo & Liu, Mingqi & Guo, Jie, 2016. "Constructing an energy efficiency benchmarking system for coal production," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 301-308.
    24. Saygin, D. & Worrell, E. & Patel, M.K. & Gielen, D.J., 2011. "Benchmarking the energy use of energy-intensive industries in industrialized and in developing countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 6661-6673.

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