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A strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study


  • Mavromatidis, Georgios
  • Orehounig, Kristina
  • Richner, Peter
  • Carmeliet, Jan


Within the general context of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction, decomposition analysis allows the quantification of the contribution of different factors to changes in emissions as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of policy and technology measures. The Kaya identity has been widely used for that purpose in order to disaggregate carbon emissions into various driving forces. In this paper, it is applied for the analysis of emissions resulting from energy use at three different scales. First, a decomposition analysis of the carbon emissions for the complete Swiss energy system is presented using the future projections from the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The Kaya identity is then applied to the Swiss building sector after it is adapted with factors that are more relatable to building parameters, such as floor area instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Finally, the last level of analysis is a small scale community energy system for a unique Swiss village that aims to significantly reduce its emissions. An energy strategy is developed and its effectiveness is assessed with the adapted Kaya identity and benchmarked against the Swiss average values. The presented method demonstrates how the performance of buildings under various retrofitting scenarios can be benchmarked against future emission targets.

Suggested Citation

  • Mavromatidis, Georgios & Orehounig, Kristina & Richner, Peter & Carmeliet, Jan, 2016. "A strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 343-354.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:88:y:2016:i:c:p:343-354
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.10.037

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Seo-Hoon Kim & SungJin Lee & Seol-Yee Han & Jong-Hun Kim, 2020. "Scenario Analysis for GHG Emission Reduction Potential of the Building Sector for New City in South Korea," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(20), pages 1-19, October.
    9. Mavromatidis, Georgios & Orehounig, Kristina & Carmeliet, Jan, 2018. "Uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis for the optimal design of distributed energy systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 219-238.
    10. Wang, Qiang & Jiang, Xue-ting & Li, Rongrong, 2017. "Comparative decoupling analysis of energy-related carbon emission from electric output of electricity sector in Shandong Province, China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 78-88.
    11. Xue-Ting Jiang & Min Su & Rongrong Li, 2018. "Decomposition Analysis in Electricity Sector Output from Carbon Emissions in China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(9), pages 1-18, September.
    12. Li, Kai & Ma, Minda & Xiang, Xiwang & Feng, Wei & Ma, Zhili & Cai, Weiguang & Ma, Xin, 2022. "Carbon reduction in commercial building operations: A provincial retrospection in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 306(PB).
    13. Zhang, Qianxue & Liao, Hua & Hao, Yu, 2018. "Does one path fit all? An empirical study on the relationship between energy consumption and economic development for individual Chinese provinces," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 527-543.
    14. Mihaela D. Rovinaru & Dana E. Bako & Flavius I. Rovinaru & Adina V. Rus & Sebastian G. Aldea, 2022. "Where Are We Heading? Tackling the Climate Change in a Globalized World," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(1), pages 1-19, December.
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