IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study


  • Mavromatidis, Georgios
  • Orehounig, Kristina
  • Richner, Peter
  • Carmeliet, Jan


Within the general context of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction, decomposition analysis allows the quantification of the contribution of different factors to changes in emissions as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of policy and technology measures. The Kaya identity has been widely used for that purpose in order to disaggregate carbon emissions into various driving forces. In this paper, it is applied for the analysis of emissions resulting from energy use at three different scales. First, a decomposition analysis of the carbon emissions for the complete Swiss energy system is presented using the future projections from the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The Kaya identity is then applied to the Swiss building sector after it is adapted with factors that are more relatable to building parameters, such as floor area instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Finally, the last level of analysis is a small scale community energy system for a unique Swiss village that aims to significantly reduce its emissions. An energy strategy is developed and its effectiveness is assessed with the adapted Kaya identity and benchmarked against the Swiss average values. The presented method demonstrates how the performance of buildings under various retrofitting scenarios can be benchmarked against future emission targets.

Suggested Citation

  • Mavromatidis, Georgios & Orehounig, Kristina & Richner, Peter & Carmeliet, Jan, 2016. "A strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 343-354.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:88:y:2016:i:c:p:343-354
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.10.037

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hammond, G.P. & Norman, J.B., 2012. "Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon emissions from UK manufacturing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 220-227.
    2. Dimitroulopoulou, C. & Ziomas, I., 2011. "Update of indicators for climate change mitigation in Greece," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6495-6504, October.
    3. Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana & Cabeza, Luisa F. & Serrano, Susana & Barreneche, Camila & Petrichenko, Ksenia, 2015. "Heating and cooling energy trends and drivers in buildings," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 85-98.
    4. Lise, Wietze, 2006. "Decomposition of CO2 emissions over 1980-2003 in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1841-1852, September.
    5. Jung, Seok & An, Kyoung-Jin & Dodbiba, Gjergj & Fujita, Toyohisa, 2012. "Regional energy-related carbon emission characteristics and potential mitigation in eco-industrial parks in South Korea: Logarithmic mean Divisia index analysis based on the Kaya identity," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 231-241.
    6. Steubing, B. & Zah, R. & Waeger, P. & Ludwig, C., 2010. "Bioenergy in Switzerland: Assessing the domestic sustainable biomass potential," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(8), pages 2256-2265, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Murray, Portia & Orehounig, Kristina & Grosspietsch, David & Carmeliet, Jan, 2018. "A comparison of storage systems in neighbourhood decentralized energy system applications from 2015 to 2050," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 231(C), pages 1285-1306.
    2. Haiyan Duan & Shipei Zhang & Siying Duan & Weicheng Zhang & Zhiyuan Duan & Shuo Wang & Junnian Song & Xian’en Wang, 2019. "Carbon Emissions Peak Prediction and the Reduction Pathway in Buildings during Operation in Jilin Province Based on LEAP," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(17), pages 1-23, August.
    3. Chen, Jiandong & Cheng, Shulei & Song, Malin & Wu, Yinyin, 2016. "A carbon emissions reduction index: Integrating the volume and allocation of regional emissions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1154-1164.
    4. Xu, Lei & Chen, Nengcheng & Chen, Zeqiang, 2017. "Will China make a difference in its carbon intensity reduction targets by 2020 and 2030?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 203(C), pages 874-882.
    5. Martin Rüdisüli & Sinan L. Teske & Urs Elber, 2019. "Impacts of an Increased Substitution of Fossil Energy Carriers with Electricity-Based Technologies on the Swiss Electricity System," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(12), pages 1-38, June.
    6. Mavromatidis, Georgios & Orehounig, Kristina & Carmeliet, Jan, 2018. "Uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis for the optimal design of distributed energy systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 219-238.
    7. Wang, Qiang & Jiang, Xue-ting & Li, Rongrong, 2017. "Comparative decoupling analysis of energy-related carbon emission from electric output of electricity sector in Shandong Province, China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 78-88.
    8. Xue-Ting Jiang & Min Su & Rongrong Li, 2018. "Decomposition Analysis in Electricity Sector Output from Carbon Emissions in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(9), pages 1-18, September.
    9. Zhang, Qianxue & Liao, Hua & Hao, Yu, 2018. "Does one path fit all? An empirical study on the relationship between energy consumption and economic development for individual Chinese provinces," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 527-543.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:88:y:2016:i:c:p:343-354. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.