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The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period--Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province


  • Zhang, Daisheng
  • Aunan, Kristin
  • Martin Seip, Hans
  • Vennemo, Haakon


Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Daisheng & Aunan, Kristin & Martin Seip, Hans & Vennemo, Haakon, 2011. "The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period--Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 4115-4124, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:7:p:4115-4124

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2014. "Programs, Prices and Policies Towards Energy Conservation and Environmental Quality in China," Working Papers 249427, Australian National University, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy.
    2. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2013. "Energy and Environmental Issues and Policy in China," Working Papers 2013.92, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    3. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2014. "Energy Prices, Subsidies and Resource Tax Reform in China," Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(3), pages 439-454, September.
    4. Zhao, Xiaofan & Li, Huimin & Wu, Liang & Qi, Ye, 2014. "Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 170-184.
    5. Zhang, Ping & Shi, XunPeng & Sun, YongPing & Cui, Jingbo & Shao, Shuai, 2019. "Have China's provinces achieved their targets of energy intensity reduction? Reassessment based on nighttime lighting data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 276-283.
    6. Fujii, Hidemichi & Cao, Jing & Managi, Shunsuke, 2016. "Firm-level environmentally sensitive productivity and innovation in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 915-925.
    7. Zhao, Xiaofan & Wu, Liang, 2016. "Interpreting the Evolution of the Energy-Saving Target Allocation System in China (2006–13): A View of Policy Learning," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 83-94.
    8. Kostka, Genia, 2013. "China's evolving green planning system: Are targets the answer?," Frankfurt School - Working Paper Series 201, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.
    9. Li, Huimin & Zhao, Xiaofan & Yu, Yuqing & Wu, Tong & Qi, Ye, 2016. "China's numerical management system for reducing national energy intensity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 64-76.
    10. Wu, Jing & Zuidema, Christian & Gugerell, Katharina & de Roo, Gert, 2017. "Mind the gap! Barriers and implementation deficiencies of energy policies at the local scale in urban China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 201-211.
    11. Huijie Yan, 2015. "The Integration of Energy, Environment and Health Policies in China: A Review," AMSE Working Papers 1548, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, France, revised 10 Nov 2015.
    12. Lo, Kevin & Wang, Mark Y., 2013. "Energy conservation in China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan period: Continuation or paradigm shift?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 499-507.
    13. Schreifels, Jeremy J. & Fu, Yale & Wilson, Elizabeth J., 2012. "Sulfur dioxide control in China: policy evolution during the 10th and 11th Five-year Plans and lessons for the future," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 779-789.
    14. Filippini, Massimo & Geissmann, Thomas & Karplus, Valerie J. & Zhang, Da, 2020. "The productivity impacts of energy efficiency programs in developing countries: Evidence from iron and steel firms in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    15. Huijie Yan, 2015. "The Integration of Energy, Environment and Health Policies in China: A Review," Working Papers halshs-01247183, HAL.
    16. Yuzhe Wang & Jing Zhao & Cheryl S.F. Chi, 2014. "China's Energy Reduction Policy System: Outcomes and Responses of Local Governments," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 22(3), pages 56-78, July.
    17. Fang, Guochang & Tian, Lixin & Sun, Mei & Fu, Min, 2012. "Analysis and application of a novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction dynamic evolution system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 291-299.
    18. Wu, Haoyi & Guo, Huanxiu & Zhang, Bing & Bu, Maoliang, 2017. "Westward movement of new polluting firms in China: Pollution reduction mandates and location choice," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 119-138.
    19. Song, Feng & Zheng, Xinye, 2012. "What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 445-453.


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