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China's energy security, the Malacca dilemma and responses


  • Zhang, ZhongXiang


China's rapid economic growth has led to a huge increase in oil imports. This has raised great concern regarding its energy security because China depends on a single chokepoint, the Strait of Malacca, with nearly three-quarters of its oil imports flowing through the Strait. Given its strategic importance to China and China's little sway on the waterway, this viewpoint focuses mainly on China's concerns about and efforts at both demand and supply sides towards energy security, in particular regarding the Malacca dilemma, and puts potential Arctic oil and gas into that context.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2011. "China's energy security, the Malacca dilemma and responses," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7612-7615.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:12:p:7612-7615
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.09.033

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2011. "Assessing China’s carbon intensity pledge for 2020: stringency and credibility issues and their implications," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 13(3), pages 219-235, September.
    2. Junko Mochizuki & ZhongXiang Zhang, 2011. "Environmental Security and its Implications for China’s Foreign Relations," Working Papers 2011.30, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    3. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2010. "China in the transition to a low-carbon economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6638-6653, November.
    4. Julie Jiang & Jonathan Sinton, 2011. "Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies: Assessing the Drivers and Impacts," IEA Energy Papers 2011/3, OECD Publishing.
    5. Ellen Bruzelius Backer, 2007. "The Mekong River Commission: Does It Work, and How Does the Mekong Basin’s Geography Influence Its Effectiveness?," Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Institute of Asian Studies, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, vol. 26(4), pages 32-56.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


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    Cited by:

    1. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2012. "Why Are the Stakes So High? Misconceptions and Misunderstandings in China’s Global Quest for Energy Security," Working Papers 2012.48, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    2. Shaikh, Faheemullah & Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2016. "Prospects of Pakistan–China Energy and Economic Corridor," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 253-263.
    3. Zhang, Hai-Ying & Ji, Qiang & Fan, Ying, 2013. "An evaluation framework for oil import security based on the supply chain with a case study focused on China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 87-95.
    4. Wu, Libo & Li, Jing & Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2013. "Inflationary effect of oil-price shocks in an imperfect market: A partial transmission input–output analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 354-369.
    5. Liedtke, Stephan, 2017. "Chinese energy investments in Europe: An analysis of policy drivers and approaches," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 659-669.
    6. Cao, Wensheng & Bluth, Christoph, 2013. "Challenges and countermeasures of China’s energy security," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 381-388.
    7. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2012. "The overseas acquisitions and equity oil shares of Chinese national oil companies: A threat to the West but a boost to China's energy security?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 698-701.
    8. Sakmani, Ahmad Safwan & Lam, Wei-Haur & Hashim, Roslan & Chong, Heap-Yih, 2013. "Site selection for tidal turbine installation in the Strait of Malacca," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 590-602.
    9. Geng, Jiang-Bo & Ji, Qiang, 2014. "Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 541-550.
    10. Ren, Jingzheng & Tan, Shiyu & Goodsite, Michael Evan & Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Dong, Lichun, 2015. "Sustainability, shale gas, and energy transition in China: Assessing barriers and prioritizing strategic measures," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 551-562.
    11. Lu, Weiwei & Su, Meirong & Zhang, Yan & Yang, Zhifeng & Chen, Bin & Liu, Gengyuan, 2014. "Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 406-413.
    12. Leung, Guy C.K. & Cherp, Aleh & Jewell, Jessica & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2014. "Securitization of energy supply chains in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 316-326.
    13. Valentine, Scott Victor, 2014. "The socio-political economy of electricity generation in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 416-429.
    14. Ren, Jingzheng & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2014. "Quantifying, measuring, and strategizing energy security: Determining the most meaningful dimensions and metrics," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 838-849.
    15. repec:eee:rensus:v:76:y:2017:i:c:p:1465-1478 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Zhao, Chunfu & Chen, Bin, 2014. "China’s oil security from the supply chain perspective: A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 269-279.
    17. Sun, Zuo-Yu & Li, Guo-Xiu, 2015. "On reliability and flexibility of sustainable energy application route for vehicles in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 830-846.
    18. Ren, Jingzheng & Dong, Liang & Sun, Lu & Evan Goodsite, Michael & Dong, Lichun & Luo, Xiao & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2015. "“Supply push” or “demand pull?”: Strategic recommendations for the responsible development of biofuel in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 382-392.


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