IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ejores/v237y2014i3p898-908.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimal credit period and lot size for deteriorating items with expiration dates under two-level trade credit financing

Author

Listed:
  • Wu, Jiang
  • Ouyang, Liang-Yuh
  • Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo
  • Goyal, Suresh Kumar

Abstract

In a supplier-retailer-buyer supply chain, the supplier frequently offers the retailer a trade credit of S periods, and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit of R periods to her/his buyer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the seller’s perspective, granting trade credit increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the buyer will not be able to pay off her/his debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase seller’s profitability. Also, many products such as fruits, vegetables, high-tech products, pharmaceuticals, and volatile liquids not only deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage but also have their expiration dates. However, only a few researchers take the expiration date of a deteriorating item into consideration. This paper proposes an economic order quantity model for the retailer where: (a) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (b) the retailer’s down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (c) deteriorating items not only deteriorate continuously but also have their expiration dates. We then show that the retailer’s optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. Furthermore, we discuss several special cases including for non-deteriorating items. Finally, we run some numerical examples to illustrate the problem and provide managerial insights.

Suggested Citation

  • Wu, Jiang & Ouyang, Liang-Yuh & Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo & Goyal, Suresh Kumar, 2014. "Optimal credit period and lot size for deteriorating items with expiration dates under two-level trade credit financing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(3), pages 898-908.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:237:y:2014:i:3:p:898-908
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2014.03.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221714002239
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wang, Wan-Chih & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Lou, Kuo-Ren, 2014. "Seller’s optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with maximum lifetime," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 232(2), pages 315-321.
    2. Seifert, Daniel & Seifert, Ralf W. & Protopappa-Sieke, Margarita, 2013. "A review of trade credit literature: Opportunities for research in operations," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 231(2), pages 245-256.
    3. Chern, Maw-Sheng & Pan, Qinhua & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Chan, Ya-Lan & Chen, Sheng-Chih, 2013. "Stackelberg solution in a vendor–buyer supply chain model with permissible delay in payments," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 397-404.
    4. Jinn-Tsair Teng & Kuo-Ren Lou, 2012. "Seller’s optimal credit period and replenishment time in a supply chain with up-stream and down-stream trade credits," Journal of Global Optimization, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 417-430, July.
    5. Liao, Jui-Jung, 2008. "An EOQ model with noninstantaneous receipt and exponentially deteriorating items under two-level trade credit," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(2), pages 852-861, June.
    6. Wee, Hui Ming & Widyadana, Gede Agus, 2013. "A production model for deteriorating items with stochastic preventive maintenance time and rework process with FIFO rule," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 941-954.
    7. Ouyang, Liang-Yuh & Chang, Chun-Tao, 2013. "Optimal production lot with imperfect production process under permissible delay in payments and complete backlogging," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(2), pages 610-617.
    8. Teng, Jinn-Tsair, 2009. "Optimal ordering policies for a retailer who offers distinct trade credits to its good and bad credit customers," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 415-423, June.
    9. Skouri, K. & Konstantaras, I. & Papachristos, S. & Ganas, I., 2009. "Inventory models with ramp type demand rate, partial backlogging and Weibull deterioration rate," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(1), pages 79-92, January.
    10. Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Min, Jie & Pan, Qinhua, 2012. "Economic order quantity model with trade credit financing for non-decreasing demand," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 328-335.
    11. Bakker, Monique & Riezebos, Jan & Teunter, Ruud H., 2012. "Review of inventory systems with deterioration since 2001," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 221(2), pages 275-284.
    12. Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Krommyda, Iris-Pandora & Skouri, Konstantina & Lou, Kuo-Ren, 2011. "A comprehensive extension of optimal ordering policy for stock-dependent demand under progressive payment scheme," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 215(1), pages 97-104, November.
    13. Goyal, S. K. & Giri, B. C., 2001. "Recent trends in modeling of deteriorating inventory," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 134(1), pages 1-16, October.
    14. Dye, Chung-Yuan, 2013. "The effect of preservation technology investment on a non-instantaneous deteriorating inventory model," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 872-880.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Chen, Sheng-Chih & Teng, Jinn-Tsair, 2015. "Inventory and credit decisions for time-varying deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credit financing by discounted cash flow analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 243(2), pages 566-575.
    2. Wu, Jiang & Chan, Ya-Lan, 2014. "Lot-sizing policies for deteriorating items with expiration dates and partial trade credit to credit-risk customers," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 292-301.
    3. Ruihai Li & Jinn-Tsair Teng & Yingfei Zheng, 2019. "Optimal credit term, order quantity and selling price for perishable products when demand depends on selling price, expiration date, and credit period," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 280(1), pages 377-405, September.
    4. Vandana, & Kaur, Arshinder, 2019. "Two-level trade credit with default risk in the supply chain under stochastic demand," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 4-23.
    5. Wu, Jiang & Al-khateeb, Faisal B. & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo, 2016. "Inventory models for deteriorating items with maximum lifetime under downstream partial trade credits to credit-risk customers by discounted cash-flow analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(P1), pages 105-115.
    6. Wu, Jiang & Chang, Chun-Tao & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Lai, Kuei-Kuei, 2017. "Optimal order quantity and selling price over a product life cycle with deterioration rate linked to expiration date," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 343-351.
    7. Wang, Wan-Chih & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Lou, Kuo-Ren, 2014. "Seller’s optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with maximum lifetime," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 232(2), pages 315-321.
    8. Xu, Xinhan & Chen, Xiangfeng & Jia, Fu & Brown, Steve & Gong, Yu & Xu, Yifan, 2018. "Supply chain finance: A systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 204(C), pages 160-173.
    9. Wu, Jiang & Skouri, Konstantina & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Ouyang, Liang-Yuh, 2014. "A note on “optimal replenishment policies for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with price and stock sensitive demand under permissible delay in payment”," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 324-329.
    10. Li, Ruihai & Skouri, Konstantina & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Yang, Wen-Goang, 2018. "Seller's optimal replenishment policy and payment term among advance, cash, and credit payments," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 197(C), pages 35-42.
    11. Li, Ruihai & Chan, Ya-Lan & Chang, Chun-Tao & Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo, 2017. "Pricing and lot-sizing policies for perishable products with advance-cash-credit payments by a discounted cash-flow analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 578-589.
    12. Ata Allah Taleizadeh & Sara Tavassoli & Arijit Bhattacharya, 2020. "Inventory ordering policies for mixed sale of products under inspection policy, multiple prepayment, partial trade credit, payments linked to order quantity and full backordering," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 287(1), pages 403-437, April.
    13. Chen, Sheng-Chih & Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Skouri, Konstantina, 2014. "Economic production quantity models for deteriorating items with up-stream full trade credit and down-stream partial trade credit," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 302-309.
    14. Janssen, Larissa & Claus, Thorsten & Sauer, Jürgen, 2016. "Literature review of deteriorating inventory models by key topics from 2012 to 2015," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 182(C), pages 86-112.
    15. Mohsen Lashgari & Ata Allah Taleizadeh & Abbas Ahmadi, 2016. "Partial up-stream advanced payment and partial down-stream delayed payment in a three-level supply chain," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 238(1), pages 329-354, March.
    16. Feng, Lin & Chan, Ya-Lan & Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo, 2017. "Pricing and lot-sizing polices for perishable goods when the demand depends on selling price, displayed stocks, and expiration date," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 185(C), pages 11-20.
    17. Teng, Jinn-Tsair & Lou, Kuo-Ren & Wang, Lu, 2014. "Optimal trade credit and lot size policies in economic production quantity models with learning curve production costs," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 318-323.
    18. Mohsen Lashgari & Ata Taleizadeh & Abbas Ahmadi, 2016. "Partial up-stream advanced payment and partial down-stream delayed payment in a three-level supply chain," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 238(1), pages 329-354, March.
    19. Yu-Chung Tsao & Vu Thuy Linh, 2016. "Supply Chain Network Designs Developed for Deteriorating Items Under Conditions of Trade Credit and Partial Backordering," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 933-956, September.
    20. A. Thangam, 2017. "Retailer’s optimal replenishment policy in a two-echelon supply chain under two-part delay in payments and disruption in delivery," International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, Springer;The Society for Reliability, Engineering Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM),India, and Division of Operation and Maintenance, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden, vol. 8(1), pages 26-46, January.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:237:y:2014:i:3:p:898-908. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eor .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.