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One-stage and two-stage DEA estimation of the effects of contextual variables

  • Johnson, Andrew L.
  • Kuosmanen, Timo

Two-stage data envelopment analysis (2-DEA) is commonly used in productive efficiency analysis to estimate the effects of operational conditions and practices on performance. In this method the DEA efficiency estimates are regressed on contextual variables representing the operational conditions. We re-examine the statistical properties of the 2-DEA estimator, and find that it is statistically consistent under more general conditions than earlier studies assume. We further show that the finite sample bias of DEA in the first stage carries over to the second stage regression, causing bias in the estimated coefficients of the contextual variables. This bias is particularly severe when the contextual variables are correlated with inputs. To address this shortcoming, we apply the result that DEA can be formulated as a constrained special case of the convex nonparametric least squares (CNLS) regression. Applying the CNLS formulation, we develop a new semi-nonparametric one-stage estimator for the coefficients of the contextual variables that directly incorporates contextual variables to the standard DEA problem. The proposed method is hence referred to as one-stage DEA (1-DEA). Evidence from Monte Carlo simulations suggests that the new 1-DEA estimator performs systematically better than the conventional 2-DEA estimator both in deterministic and noisy scenarios.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal European Journal of Operational Research.

Volume (Year): 220 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 559-570

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Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:220:y:2012:i:2:p:559-570
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eor

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  1. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
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  3. Wang, Hung-jen & Schmidt, Peter, 2001. "One-step and two-step estimation of the effects of exogenous variables on technical efficiency levels," MPRA Paper 31075, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2002.
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  8. Chen, Xiaohong, 2007. "Large Sample Sieve Estimation of Semi-Nonparametric Models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 76 Elsevier.
  9. Rajiv D. Banker, 1993. "Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1265-1273, October.
  10. Kuosmanen, Timo, 2006. "Stochastic Nonparametric Envelopment of Data: Combining Virtues of SFA and DEA in a Unified Framework," Discussion Papers 11864, MTT Agrifood Research Finland.
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  14. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2011. "Two-stage DEA: caveat emptor," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 205-218, October.
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  16. Hoff, Ayoe, 2007. "Second stage DEA: Comparison of approaches for modelling the DEA score," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 181(1), pages 425-435, August.
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